|摘要: ||George Steiner 在其著作After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation 一 書裏, 就西方翻譯史以四階段作為分期(periodization)。本研究將依Steiner 對翻譯史的分期，來縱觀中、西方直譯與意譯之演進。透過先哲賢人在翻 譯過程所得的經驗而抒發的翻譯見解，繼而衍生為二十世紀翻譯蛻變成獨 立學科的理論基礎。而中國的翻譯史亦充斥著直譯與意譯之爭。一九九五 年Lawrence Venuti 於The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation 提 到「異化」與「歸化」的觀點，認為譯者在譯文中隱身意即採取「歸化」 的策略是一種文化侵略的行徑。以Venuti 的觀點來詮釋翻譯史上「直譯」 與「意譯」之爭，其實各有時代歷史之需求、或有捍衛民族文化之意圖、 或有語言目的之功用。本研究將就「異化」與「歸化」及「直譯」與「意 譯」的異取同工之處來窺視翻譯在語言文化的角色。另外，將以Translation Studies 一派之理論作為本計畫翻譯在目的與文學及文化之著墨重點。|
George Steiner, in his book After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation, divides the Western translation’s history to four stages (periodization). The study is based on Steiner’s point of view to look at the Western translaton’s tradition: literal translation (word-for-word) and free translation (sense-for-sense). Philosophers and writers in the translation process accumulated their experiences and expressed their opinions on translation. Their opinions on translation became the basic translation theories of the 20th century, and grew into an independent study. The Chinese translation’s histroy is also repleted with literal and free translation dispute. In 1995, Lawrence Venuti in The Translator's Invisibility: A History of Translation sets the “foreignization” and “demostication”, and mentions that when the translator is “invisible” in the translation, which means to take "“demostication”" strategy. It is a cultural act of aggression, especially for the English mainstream markets, it will give the reader a passive attitude to loss the awareness of other cultures. Venuti's point of view is based on the dualism of literal translation and free translation through history. However, the argument must have its reasons: maybe it could be historical request, or defending culture, or for the purpose of enriching national language. The idea of “Foreignization-demostication” emphasizes the dynamic concept of culture, containing the demands of national politics; on the other hand, “literal-free translation” focuses on the original work and the translation between the language level or the cultural superficial content. This study will focus on the relationship between “literal translation and free translation” and “Foreignization-demostication”, and explaining the role of translation in language, literature and culture.