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    題名: 華人成就謙虛的後續研究-對幾個延伸議題的再探討
    其他題名: The Myth of Chinese Modesty- Follow-Up Studies on Some Extended Topics
    作者: 韓貴香
    貢獻者: 淡江大學通識與核心課程中心
    日期: 2010
    上傳時間: 2011-07-06 22:45:15 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 此研究計畫是以研究者執行國科會96 和97 兩學年度的研究計畫 所獲致的結果為基礎,希望能進一步探討和回答這兩個研究結果所延 伸出來的一些相關議題。96 年國科會計畫「華人謙虛的迷思: 人際 關係對成就事件歸因的影響。NSC9 6-2 4 13 -H- 0 32 - 00 5-」研究者採深入 訪談和情境實驗兩種不同的研究方法,探討不同程度的關係親近性和 成就事件對對方具不具有威脅性,如何影響華人對自身的成就事件做 人際歸因。整體而言,不管是質化或量化的研究結果,都顯示華人在 面對不同的互動對象時,基於不同的動機,會以不同的人際歸因方式 來解釋自己的成就。簡單的說,當自己的成就會威脅到對方時,不管 和對方的關係親不親近,基於同理對方和維護對方的面子,個人都會 以外在因素的運氣來向對方歸因自己的成就;反之,當自己的成就不 會威脅對方,對象的親近程度,便決定華人的人際歸因方式。當互動 的對象是關係親近者,基於互享榮耀的動機,華人會以努力和能力這 種能自我增進的方式來歸因;當互動的對象為非關係親近者,則基於 不讚己長的社會規範,華人會以外在因素的運氣來歸因此成就,此不 同於在自己的成就會威脅到對方時,是基於同理心而謙虛的情況,在 此研究中,研究者同時認為能突顯華人謙虛文化特色者,是在不讚幾 長而非同理心的情況。 97 年的計畫「解構華人的謙虛腳本: 論「謙虛」的自我增進效 果。NSC97 - 24 10 -H-0 3 2- 04 5-」研究者則以社會腳本的觀點,分別進行 三個不同的研究,探討華人對成就的謙虛是否具有自我增進的功能。 研究一請研究參與者以寫劇本的方式,收集華人在成就情境中的對話 資料,並據以建構華人的謙虛腳本內容。結果顯示:成就者面對讚美 時的主要反應是謙虛和否定自己的成就;相對地,讚美者面對成就者的謙虛後,主要的反應是否定成就者的謙虛,並再給予更強的讚美。 研究二則以情境實驗法檢驗謙虛腳本是否可以規範華人在成就相關 情境的互動行為,結果發現對於吻合腳本的對話,的確被評量為較適 當, 而不吻合腳本的對話則被評為不適當。研究三同樣採情境實驗 法,其結果則更進一步指出,吻合謙虛腳本的成就者謙虛過後,其自 尊上升的程度雖不若不謙虛者,但藉由讚美者吻合腳本的再讚美,成 就者的自尊同樣上升。且, 和不謙虛者的結果會妨害其人際關係不 同,謙虛者除同樣可以提升自尊之外,還可以維持和諧的人際關係。 整體而言,這兩個研究的結果雖然支持研究者的想法,但由於此 兩個研究主要都是以「個人」的角度出發,來探討華人對自身成就謙 虛的現象。然而, 就個人自我(self)的觀點來看, 華人對於自我的概 念,與西方文化中的個人是以自己這個獨立的個體為界線不同,而是 常常將和自己相關的他人納進自己的「大我」中,個人的成就往往也 是可以納入此「大我」中的他人的面子。因此,本研究計畫的研究一 主要想探討:大我中的成員( 父母)在和別人互動時,對於家人( 子 女) 的成就是否會表現出同樣的人際歸因方式, 以與96 年度研究計 畫的結果做比較。研究計畫二(A 和B)則以社會互動( 社會腳本) 的 觀點, 來探討華人父母在面對他人稱讚自己子女的A 成就時, 為何 會以貶抑自己子女另一向度的B 能力來和對方互動,並分析華人父母 這一矛盾式的回應模式,是否展現某種華人文化的特色,此結果同樣 可以與97 年度的研究結果做比較。 此外, 研究者96 年的研究是以大學學測為實驗操弄的情境, 此 明顯是屬「縱向傑出」(Vertical distinctiveness)事件, 而此和個人獲 致「橫向傑出」(Horizontal distinctiveness)的成就( 例如打球、唱歌) 時,是否會有相似的人際歸因反應型態,需要再做進一步的檢驗,本 研究計畫的第三個部份,就是想檢驗華人對這兩種不同類型的成就,會不會採不同的人際歸因方式。最後,研究者96 年的研究結果認為: 嚴格說來,只有在面對非關係親近者且自己的成就又不會威脅到對方 時,華人所表現出來的謙虛,才比較是受到儒家文化習染而不同於西 方的謙虛特色。至於在自己的成就對互動對方具有威脅性時,華人所 表現出來的謙虛,並不能算是華人文化獨有的特色,因為這種體恤對 方的同理心是一種普世的價值,西方個人主義文化中的人在面對相同 的情境時,應該會有同樣的反應。研究四即是針對這樣的想法進行跨 文化的研究和檢驗。而在研究計畫執行的安排上,第一年擬執行研究 一和研究二, 第二年再執行研究三和研究四。
    This proposal is a follow-up study based on the results of researcher’s 2007 and 2008 studies granted by National Science Council and wants to investigate some extended topics accordingly. The study in 2007 “The myth of Chinese modesty: The effect of personal relationships on attribution for success, NSC96-2413-H-032-005” focused on the effect of interpersonal closeness and threats of one’s achievement to the interacting target on interpersonal attribution for their achievements. The results of this study found that when the achievement would be a threat to the interacting target, Chinese would attribute their achievement to luck, and their motives was empathy and saving other’s face. When the achievement would not be a threat, then, how would Chinese attribute their achievement depends on their closeness to the target. When the interacting target was an intimate, Chinese would not be modest. In fact, they made interpersonal attribution for their achievements to ability and efforts with the motivation of sharing glory. On the contrary, when the target was just an acquaintance, Chinese would attribute their achievement to luck and the motivation behind was to obey the social norm of “not to boast one’s advantages” which was different from the motivation of empathy in the situation where one’s achievement was a threat to the target. Although the concept of modesty seemed to be opposed to self-enhancement, in study of 2008 “The self-enhancing function of Chinese modesty, NSC97-2410-H-032-045”, the researcher adopted the perspective of social script and proposed that Chinese modesty to one’s success would result in other’s more intensive compliments which also have the function of enhancing the achiever. Study 1 reconstructed the contents of Chinese modest script by asking participants to write down dialogs between achievers and admirers and found that when an achiever faced an admirer’s compliments, the dominant response was to deny his success modestly. On the contrary, when an admirer faced an achiever’s modesty, the dominant response was to deny the achiever’s modesty and express compliments more intensively. Study 2 examined if people in Confucian societies would judge people’s proper behaviors in complimentary situations according to modest script. The results supported this speculation. Study 3 examined the effects of admirer’s compliments on achiever’s self-esteem and found that the admirer’s intensive compliments following the achiever’s modesty could not only enhance the achiever’s self-esteem, but also maintain the interpersonal harmony between the admirer and achiever. Overall, though the results of aforementioned two studies supported the researcher’s propositions, these two studies focused on the target of “individual” to examine the phenomenon of Chinese modesty. However, the concept of Chinese “self” is not confined by the small self of individual, instead, the related others are all a part of Chinese “big self”. When one achieves any accomplishments, the big self also enjoy the reflected glory. Therefore, study 1 in this proposal intends to investigate whether or not the big self (parents) will adopt the same interpersonal attribution patterns for their family member’s (children’s) achievement when interacting with others. The results of study 1 could be compared with the results of 2007’s study. Study 2 (A and B) in this proposal will adopt the viewpoint of social interacting (social script) to investigate whether Chinese parents intend to efface their children’s B talent when others admire their children’s A talent and will try to analyze whether this interacting pattern connotes any features of Chinese cultures. The results of this study can also be compared with the results of 2008’s study. Furthermore, the scenarios manipulated in study 2008 were success in “university admission examination”, which apparently was an achievement of vertical distinctiveness and differed from the achievement of horizontal distinctiveness such as singing and playing instruments. Therefore, study 3 in this proposal wants to examine whether Chinese will have the same interpersonal attribution pattern and motives when achieve different kind of distinctiveness. In addition, the researcher proposed in her 2008’s study that only when one’s achievement would not be a threat to others and Chinese still comply with the norm of modesty could represent the modest characteristics in Confucian societies. For if one’s modesty was caused by one’s achievement might be a threat to others, it was a function of empathy. People grown up in Western cultures would do the same, for empathy is one of universal values. Therefore, study 4 in this proposal will try to collect cross-culture data to examine this topic. On arrangement, study 1 and 2 (A and B) in this proposal will be executed in the first year, study 3 and study 4 will be executed in the second year.
    顯示於類別:[通識與核心課程中心] 研究報告

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