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    題名: 唐宋運河、灌溉與農田水利發展之研究
    其他題名: Tang-Song Canal System, Irrigation and Land Use Development
    作者: 艾德榮
    貢獻者: 淡江大學經濟學系
    關鍵詞: 制度;財產權;政治經濟;經濟史;中國;Institutions;Property Rights;Political Economy;Economic History;China
    日期: 2010
    上傳時間: 2011-07-05 23:29:12 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 西元450 至750 年間,中國是一個自給自足的農業經濟體,有相對穩定不變的每人 GDP 與人口,以及幾無大改變的政治制度。但是在西元755 至763 年間的內戰(安史之 亂)開啟了一個轉變期。整個中國開始出現地方商業市場,並且發展與互相連結,在一 些案例中,甚至發展出全國市場,商業與工業出現前所未有的規模並且技術創新的腳步 更快了。這些發展在西元1000 至1300 年這段期間,持續且加速進行。在這段期間中, 每人GDP 與人口大約成長為兩倍,中國成為世界的技術領導者。而這,引發了政治經濟 上一個重要的問題:「是什麼原因造成了宋代中國早期的經濟成長?」 要嚴謹地回答這個問題,需要進行多年的研究方能有所收穫,而今年的計劃案正是 此進行中的多年研究計劃之一部分。之前國科會已經補助該多年研究計劃的兩個子題, 其中第一個子題探討安史之亂(755–763)後的政治制度改革。我的論點是軍事統治者 (節度使)造成財產權制度的改變,從而保護了商業與工業利益,造成了中國早期的經 濟成長。這個制度改變的發現與考證,對前述問題的研究是一個很好的開始,使得後續 的研究很有希望與潛力。其次在第二個子題中,我對與經濟成長相關的發展進行不同面 向的研究,包括數學、天文學、農業、工業、商業、都市化、道路橋樑、航運、以及人 口等。本多年研究計劃之第一部份與第二部分已各獲得國科會之一年期補助,並支持一 位熟稔日文之專任研究助理,希望此次申請亦能獲得通過,讓此多年研究得以繼續進 行,而此部份亦需要一位專任研究助理。 在接下來的一年,我計劃研究中國唐宋時代之運河體系、灌溉、以及土地利用。自 第二次世界大戰以來,已有許多社會歷史學家對此時期的這些議題做了很多的研究。然 而,這些研究當中很少有從經濟發展的觀點來探討這段時期中的改變。我計劃以宋代各 層面之進步例證來論證宋代的經濟成長,這樣的研究是很重要且必須進行的,因為大部 分社會歷史學家的既有文獻並非以探討生產力改變為研究動機,雖然他們的研究有觸及 到此。同樣的,大部分馬克斯主義學者,其研究動機也主要是基於對歷史分期 (periodization)議題所抱持的興趣,這些和經濟學家的研究角度有很大的差異。 在此必須提及有關這些議題的研究文獻,多為日文,由於我無法閱讀日文,因此本 計劃需要有嫻熟日語之研究助理協助。因為民間日語補習班之薪水為國科會兼任助理之 三倍,並且從事歷史研究需要投入數月努力以及指導訓練的固定成本後,研究助理方能 較具生產力,因此懇請賜予較特別之研究支持:一位全職之研究助理。如果沒有至少一 位全職研究助理之經費,將很難聘請到嫻熟日語之助理,若然將使此研究較難完成。
    Between 450 A.D. and 750 A.D., China was characterized by a self-sufficient agrarian economy with constant per-capita GDP, relatively constant population, and political institutions that showed little fundamental change. A civil war from 755 –763 A.D. initiated a period of transition. Throughout China, local commercial markets appeared, developed and interconnected, even, in some cases, creating national markets. Commerce and industry appeared on an unprecedented scale and the pace of technological innovation increased. These developments continued and accelerated in the 1000 –1300 A.D. period, when per-capita GDP and population roughly doubled and China emerged as the world’s technological leader. This raises an important question: “What caused the onset of Song China’s early economic growth?” In order to address this question, this current one year project proposal is part of a multi-year ongoing research project. Previously NSC grants have supported two parts of this research project. The first part of supported research on this question has identified and studied political institutional reforms after the An-Shi Rebellion (755 –763). My thesis is that the military governors caused a change in the property right system, protecting commercial and industrial interests, which led to China’s early economic growth.The identification and documentation of this institutional change was an excellent beginning for research on this topic and offers much potential. The second part of supported research was on various aspects of development related to economic growth, including mathematics, astronomy, agriculture, industry, commerce, urbanization, roads and bridges, maritime shipping, and population. Both the first and second parts of this project were funded for a year each and supported a full-time research assistant that could read Japanese. This year’s request is to continue this project, which also requires a full-time research assistant. In the next year I plan to study the canal system, irrigation and land use of the Tang-Song period. There has been a large amount of research on these topics of this era by social historians since the Second World War. However, very few if any systematic studies have been done that present the changes of this period from the perspective of economic development. I aim to further make the case for Song economic growth. Note that this must be done as a part of this project because most of the existing studies by social historians are not motivated to studying changes in productivity, although they touch on it. Rather, most Marxist scholars are interested in periodization issues that are very different than those economists study. Because much of the literature on these topics is in Japanese, which I can not read, I require the services of a research assistant with this ability. Because of other opportunities (在補習班教 日文), such an assistant commands a wage three times that of a typical part-time research assistant. In addition, no prior knowledge of history can be presumed. Each new topic and period will require a fixed cost of several months’ effort before a research assistant can become productive. For these reasons, I am requesting an extraordinary level of research support: one full-time research assistant. Note that without the support of at least one full-time research assistant, it will be difficult to obtain the services of an assistant who can read Japanese making the completion of this research project questionable.
    顯示於類別:[經濟學系暨研究所] 研究報告

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