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    題名: 1930年代上海觀光發展研究
    其他題名: The study of the development of Shanghai tourism in 1930s
    作者: 黃信元;Huang, Hsing-Yuan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士班
    王樾;葉泉宏;Yueh, Wang;Yeh Chuan-Hung
    關鍵詞: 租界;上海;1930;中國旅行社;旅遊;觀光;Settlement;Shanghai;1930;China Travel Service;Travel;Sightseeing
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-06-16 22:02:57 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 1930年代大上海的繁榮,可遠朔自17、18世紀以來英國等西方列強經濟地理觀念的改變,英國經過觀察評估後,對上海一地開始產生興趣,並透過1840年中英鴉片戰爭後的五口開港通商中實現此一目的,開港後英、美、法出於自身利益考量紛紛在此設立租界,除了在上海形成「國中之國」的景像,也徹底改變傳統中國舊上海的城市面貌。由於英、美、法等租界在母國強而有力的保護與都市建設之下,上海歷經清末如太平天國之役與民國初年軍閥亂政等政治動盪下,反而吸引大批想避禍的中國最有錢人家或平民百姓湧入上海,使上海展現出有別於其他飽受動盪之苦的中國城市異常地繁榮發展。
    國民政府北伐完成奠都南京並於民國19年(1928年)中原大戰後,全國政治中心已由南、北轉移至中部,「黃金十年」期間因地緣上距南京較近且位於全國海岸中心的地理關係,以及蔣介石清黨後,共黨轉為地下化、中國經濟仍為大財團掌控,加上上海人口持續快速增加下,持續為社會提供發展動能。得天獨厚的上海在天時地利配合下,至1930年代已達百業繁榮景緻,娛樂活動十分多元且精采,此一時期的上海,與當時其他國際各大都市一樣,已達足夠條件發展觀光,雖當時已有歐美日等觀光機構在上海發展,但陳光甫在市場與其他相關需求下,終於成立了中國人自辦的第一家旅行社-「中國旅行社」。中旅社成立之後,積極發展旅遊相關業務,例如提倡導覽、便利行旅、社會服務等,在事後來看,發展都相當成功,中旅在成立後也激勵國人自辦多家旅行社或旅遊團體成立,對中國觀光發展提供進一步發展。
    中國從古代至今,一直都有旅行活動,但活動方式並無重大轉變,租界近現代設施的使用使得開埠後的上海旅行產生質的改變;充沛的上海觀光資源發展下輔以中國旅行社的設立,對中國當時旅遊觀光發展達到一定程度的示範作用。
    The prosperity of Shanghai in 1930s can be traced back to the change of economic and geographic concepts of Western Great Powers such as Britain in 17th and 18th centuries. After a thorough observation and evaluation, Britain was then interested in Shanghai; therefore, after the Opium War in 1840, Britain achieved its goal of having trading relation with China while the five ports were opened. On their own accounts, not only Britain, but also America and France set up their settlements one after another. Hence, Shanghai seemed to be a country of a country and this small city was then took on an entirely new look. For the development of Shanghai, because of the protection and construction from the Britain, America and France, a large number of the rich men and the ordinary people who wanted to flee for refuge from the war of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and the war among warlord during the end of the Qing moved to Shanghai. Compare with other cities in China, which were suffering from the chaos caused by wars, Shanghai was extraordinarily prosperous.
    Since 1) the National government established the capital in Nanjing after Northern expedition, 2) the national political center had been moved from south and north to the central section after Central Plains War in 1928, 3) Shanghai was closed to Nanjing and it was the center of the seacoast in Golden ten years, 4) the Communist Party went underground and the economy was controlled by big financial groups after Chiang Kai-Shek purged the political party, and 5) the growing population of Shanghai, the society continuously developed. In fine weather and favorable geographical position, Shanghai was full of different industries and the recreational activities. Shanghai at the time was ready for the tourism as other international cities. Though there were European, American and Japanese tourism institutions, Chen Guang-Fu, in the need of market, established the first China travel agency called China Travel Service. Once the travel agency was established, travelling business was actively and successfully expanded such as tour guiding, easy travel, and social service etc. Since then, many travel agencies run by local people and travelling groups were founded. For this reason, the tourism of China had been improved further.
    There were travel activities from ancient times till now in China, but the ways of travelling hadn’t been changed. However, the use of modern facilities in settlements had changed the quality of travelling in Shanghai since the ports opened. Ample tourism resources as well as the establishment of China Travel Service had been a demonstration of China tourism at that time in part.
    顯示於類別:[歷史學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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