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    题名: 中國大陸石油能源運輸安全戰略之研究
    其它题名: A research on China’s petroleum transportation security strategy
    作者: 劉哲均;Liu, Che-Chun
    贡献者: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    郭建中;Guo, Jiann-jong
    关键词: 中國大陸;能源運輸;石油安全戰略;能源安全;能源外交;China;energy transportation;petroleum safety strategy;energy safety,;energy diplomacy
    日期: 2011
    上传时间: 2011-06-16 21:42:39 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 中國大陸在1993年成為石油淨進口國,對於石油的需求日益增加,整體的供需開始衍生出許多問題。尤其在2003年成為世界第二大石油消費國後,更是突顯國家整體能源結構的落差。面對能源供需不穩這重大的挑戰,中國大陸開始對本身的運輸安全開始佈局與規劃,為的就是使運輸回國的石油資源能夠平順,讓國家正在快速起飛的經濟不至於陷入困境。因此,面對能源供需迫切的局勢,石油運輸的安全對急欲尋求供應穩定的中國大陸在國家安全上造成什麼影響,以及在石油運輸回國路線的規劃上,可能發生哪些內在和外在因素困擾本身在運輸路線的佈局,造成國家安全受到威脅,而這些問題自然受到西方大國和國際社會的關注。
    本研究將對中國大陸在石油能源運輸上,可能對國家安全造成的影響來進行深度探討,並分析中國大陸在既有與替代石油運輸路線所進行的戰略佈局。本研究共分為六章。第一章為緒論。第二章分析石油能源供需對國家安全的影響。第三章將對目前中國大陸石油運輸現況進行探討。第四章剖析中國大陸在中東地區石油運輸佈局所產生的困境。第五章則是對中國大陸欲建構以本身為核心的石油運輸佈局所執行的戰略進行評估。第六章為結論。
    本研究發現中國大陸在石油運輸戰略上仍就以中東為主,但海上和陸上運輸的比例已經隨著中哈、中俄以及中巴等石油運輸管線的開通,開始有了轉變。另外,在擴張運輸船隊和海軍護船的執行上也有所突破,並透過能源外交和新能源安全戰略的雙管齊下,來達成能源運輸穩定和供應正常的目標,進而使整體國家安全能夠得到保障,讓未來中國大陸在規劃與執行石油能源運輸安全戰略上能夠更加順利。
    China had been one of the net import countries for petroleum in 1993. Its demand for petroleum is increasing, which caused many problems of the supply -demand. In particular, after it became the second largest oil consuming country, the gap of the country’s energy construction was more prominent. To face this important challenge of the energy supply-demand instability, China begins to plan petroleum distribution and safety transportation. The transportation of oil resources can be returned smoothly to China, which would let its economy rapidly taking off, and not fall into dilemma. Therefore, face with the urgent situation of energy supply forced China anxiously to find stable supply of its oil transportation safety based on national security, as well as planning the return of oil transportation routes, may cause internal and external factors related to the threat of its national security. All these challenges and problems are also concerned by the Western powers and international community.
    This study will be in-depth discussion on the safety oil transportation which might have impact on national security of China, and analyze the layout of strategy which conducting on the existence and replacement of the oil transport route. This study comprises six chapters: Chapter 1 is the overall introduction. Chapter 2 analyzes the effect on the national security of energy supply-demand. Chapter 3 will discuss China’s oil transportation in current situation. Chapter 4 analyzes the difficulties on the oil transportation layout of China from Middle East. Chapter 5 will assess the implementation of the strategy to the construction of China, which wants to be the core on the oil transport layout, and Chapter 6 concludes this research.
    This study shows that China is still mainly using the oil transport strategy by sea from Middle East, but the ratio has been changed between maritime and land transportations to China since it cooperated with Kazakhstan, Russia and Pakistan and other oil pipelines via land. In addition, it also has breakthrough by expansion on transport fleet with the Navy ships to protect, and through using energy diplomacies and new energy security strategies each as investment or joined venture to achieve its objective on energy transportation and supply-demand stability. Those strategies make the overall national security guaranteed, and letting China plan and implemention of the oil transportation security strategies can be more smoothly in the future.
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