本研究採「相關事件回億法」，請問卷填答者回想一過去與別人互動時，曾發生的沒面子或丟臉的事件，再請其評量該事件發生時經驗不同情緒的程度。結果顯示，當沒面子的事件爲自己造成的行爲失當時，研究參與者報告的情緒爲高的尷尬困窘和中等程度的羞恥慚愧；在能力失敗的情境，主要的情緒則爲高的尷尬困窘和高的羞恥慚愧；但在道德法律事件時，除了很高的羞恥慚愧和尷尬困窘外，還伴隨強烈的罪惡感。不過如果這三種沒面子事件的引發，是基於他人公開的指責或嘲笑，則還會加入生氣、敵意和受羞辱的感受，且這些加入的情緒還會使原先的羞恥慚愧和尷尬困窘感受更爲明顯。 Using a "related event recall" method, this study tried to clarify different emotions experienced behind different types of losing face situations. The results of this study showed that when the face losing was about absent-minded mistakes or misconducts, the participants rated a deep sense of’ embarrassment. If it was about ability failure, the emotions were shame and embarrassment. And it it was about morality, except shame and embarrassment, participants also felt a sense of guilty. However, if aforementioned cases ere caused by being blamed or insulted by others, the emotions participants experienced were mainly anger, hostility, and humiliation as well as shame and embarrassment.
教育與心理研究=Journal of Education & Psychology 33(3)，頁1-23