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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/53442


    Title: 中國普通高等學校招生制度的改革
    Other Titles: A Study on the Reform of the Unversity Admission System in Mainland China
    Authors: 楊瑩;Ying, Chanyang
    Contributors: 淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所
    Keywords: 中國;普通高等學校;招生制度;高考;Mainland China;Admission system of general higher education institutions;The entrance examination system for higher education
    Date: 2010-06
    Issue Date: 2010-12-23 14:26:21 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 大學入學考試中心基金會
    Abstract: 本文主要是透過文獻探討及文件分析法來剖析中國高等教育(普通高等學校)招生制度的改革。文內除說明中國大陸普通高校招生制度的沿革及試驗方案外,並論及高校招生計劃管理相關體制歷年來的改革,其中,由於中國高校招生制度和收費、畢業生就業分配制度等有密切關聯,故本文亦簡扼說明其招生體制牽動的相關變革;在說明中國目前實施的高考制度之後,本文並嘗試歸納分析其所面臨之重要問題及未來可能之發展趨勢,最後,並提出我國未來相關政策改革可借鏡參考之啟示。 整體而言,改革開放後這三十餘年間,中國政府不斷針對高校的招生計劃和畢業生分配制度進行改革;目前已將高校原來全部按國家計劃統一招生、畢業生由國家全部包下來的分配辦法,改為在招生上實行國家計劃招生、定向招生、用人單位委託招生、和國家計劃外招收自費生三種辦法;相對應的,畢業生分配,也從採取國家計劃分配為主的方式,改為以自主擇業為主,定向生、委培生按合同就業,以及少數公費生由國家計畫分配就業的方式。換言之,中國以往在社會主義經濟體制下實施的「統包、統分、統配」的招生與畢業生工作分配緊密掛勾的制度,在社會結構及經濟產業受到市場化的衝擊影響下,已經不復存續,走入歷史。而且自1999年實施新一輪的高考改革迄今,雖然高考制度仍是中國高校招生的主要方式,但透過自主招生、自主命題等方面試點改革範圍之漸增,中央教育主管部門可說是已逐 漸釋權,賦予地方政府及高校更多的招生自主權。 簡言之,中國大陸高校招生制度有下述五點值得借鏡: 一、高校招生制度的改革採取針對創新構想方案的嘗試經驗來修正政策的作法,避免了制度一次全面驟改所可能產生的無法收拾的後遺症,值得參考。 二、透過自主招生與自主命題試點的引進實施,中國高校的招生自主權得以擴張,對我國大學校院未來招生,考慮授權部分學校採行單獨招生與命題,提供了可供參考的素材。 三、中國高考採取電腦網上閱卷,走向「無紙化」改革策略,值得參考。 四、中國政府將採行以高中學業水平考試成績作為高考錄取制度之一環。同時,要探索有的科目一年多次考試的辦法。此項舉辦多次考試的改革策略值得借鏡。 五、中國政府在教育部下成立考試中心,作為專門負責全國教育相關考試之機構,此項政府的大力支持,可說是其所具備的最大優勢。
    This paper reports the major findings of a research conducted to investigate current university admission reforms in Mainland China. Adopting mainly the method of document analysis, the research first traced the development of China's university admission system and then examined in depth several experimental admission schemes that have been adopted in recent years. Also included in the research were related issues such as reforms concerning China's university student recruitment systems as well as those regarding student fees and job allocations of university graduates. Other critical issues including problems faced by the existing university admission system and trends towards future reforms were also carefully analyzed and discussed in the research. All the major findings of the research are presented in the present paper, which concludes with five practical suggestions which will shed new light on future reforms of the university admission system in Taiwan.
    Relation: 考試學刊=Bulletin of Testing and Assessment8,頁91-135
    Appears in Collections:[教育政策與領導研究所] 期刊論文

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