淡江大學機構典藏:Item 987654321/52226
English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 57403/90944 (63%)
Visitors : 13107669      Online Users : 132
RC Version 7.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library & TKU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/52226

    Title: 先秦德福觀研究
    Other Titles: The research of the conception of virtue-happiness in pre-Chin dynasty
    Authors: 林佩儒;Lin, Pei-ju
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    袁保新;Yuan, Pao-hsin;高柏園;Kao, Po-yuan
    Keywords: 德福觀;先秦思想;德福一致;儒家;道家;法家;墨家;The Concetion of Virtue-Happiness;The Thought of Pre-Chin Dynasty;The Accordance between Virtue-Happiness;Confucian;Taoism;Mohist;Legalism
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 17:16:05 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 德福關係做為一個獨立的道德課題,在西方社會已有十分悠久的討論歷史,然而在中國,關於德行與福分關係的看法,都很隱晦支離的散落在各種關於道德或人生的論述之中。但事實上,早在西周初年,德與福已初步建立起某種對應關係,它是中國德福信仰的初始樣貌,中國德福觀以這種原始型態開始它隱而未顯的發展歷程,它對當代及後世的道德信念起著絕對的作用。經本文的梳理可知:西周初年反覆出現君王敬德明德以祈求上天降下天命的論調,可視為德與福的初步連結──君王彰顯好的政治品德以獲取上帝的福佑,永保國家命脈的源遠流長,這是德與福分最初的對應雛型,是透過政治域領表現出來德福觀。




    The discussion of virtue–happiness relation has been veiled behind and scattering fragmentally in various discussions and texts of life and morality in China, even though as an insulated morality issue, it has a long history of discussions in western society. In fact, as early as Western Zhou Dynasty, the primitive corresponding relationship between virtue and happiness had been initially established as the primary Chinese virtue-happiness belief which started its implicit development then. And it has the absolute influence on the morality belief of the contemporary and future generations. It is believed that through the collation of this paper, it, a reappearing theory in early Western Zhou Dynasty, can be regarded as the initial connection between virtue and happiness that emperors prayed for Gods’ sacred orders by showing their respect for the good virtues. Emperors displayed good political ethics to acquire the blessings from gods and to ensure the eternal and lasting existence of the state. This is the archetype of the virtue-happiness belief, which was demonstrated in the political reign.

    When it came to the Spring-Autumn and Warring States Period, all schools of thoughts contending, virtue-happiness belief had diversified. First, inherited from the culture of Zhou, while recognizing the influence of destiny, Confucius found the self virtue practice the intrinsic value which could be acquired upon replying the call of the Heaven and be recognized by self affirmation free of any external influence. His virtue thus, became the absolute primacy in the corresponding relationship between virtue and happiness. Mencius, who tried to find a solid humane basis for the Confucian virtue belief, not only emphasized virtue while neglecting happiness, he even had a tendency to suppress happiness and revere virtue wholeheartedly.

    However, while Confucius and Mencius disregarded the secular values, they both ascertained a more profound happiness, that is the joy and delight brought by the virtue practice -- an extreme self cultivation and self affirmation experience gained from the virtue practice to heal the negative emotions generated from the fortune and misfortune of life, and to achieve an ideal state of eternal happiness. In this phase, the internal virtues can guarantee a complete harmony and therefore the accordance between virtue and happiness. For Hsun Tze, he emphasized music and rituals to assure the agreement between virtue and happiness. In the case of discord, nonetheless, agreeing fundamentally with the Confucian notion of happiness resulting from virtue practice, Hsun Tzu believed self cultivation achieved high morality and self-affirmation.

    Secondly, the Taoism pursues the ultimate natural and eternal way, rather than the insignificant secular values that mean little to life. Taoists, and Lao Tau
    believe that in chaotic time, the ultimate happiness comes from serene and self-sufficient life which is achieved by the virtue of wu wei. And Chuang Tzu as well, was seeking to maintain the innate ultimate purity virtue in which the great happiness was lead by the harmony of life and nature. This is the accordance between virtue and happiness in Taoism.

    As to the Mohist and Legalism, the former raised the idea of heaven, earth, and spirits rewarding the goodness and punishing the evilness. The Heaven being the ultimate judge, has the divine power to rule on the punishment or reward for human merits or immoral acts, and to maintain an unwavering accordance between virtue and happiness. The latter deals with the problem from the political perspectives. To the Legalism, virtue and happiness correspond with each other through respecting rulers and obeying the law. It is a reward punishment system under the political control.

    With a mutual recognition of virtuous people being worthy of happiness, yet with individual perceptions to life and time, the Pre-Chin philosophers had diverse virtue-happiness concepts concealed behind various political theories or views about life. Overall, the Pre-Chin virtue-happiness thinking can be summarized to two general trends of development: first, the spiritual elevation, and the other is the implementation of social systems. The former are Confucius, Mencius, Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu who overcame spiritually the predicament of discord between virtue and happiness by virtue practice to realize happiness and to achieve ideal virtue-happiness accordance. The latters are Hsun Tzu and Hanfei Tzu who implemented social organization and orders in chaotic society. However, the virtue-happiness notion in the social systems, eventually had been immersed in the various social fairness and justices which were extremely similar to the notion. What truly created a profound influence was the virtue-happiness ideal advocated by Confucius, Mencius, Lao Tzu, and Chuang Tzu. The ideal of virtue and moral integrity change leading to the eternal happiness, and with the universal meaning of life, has become one of the most important Chinese moral beliefs over the years.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute & Department of Chinese] Thesis

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat

    All items in 機構典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library & TKU Library IR teams. Copyright ©   - Feedback