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    題名: 先秦德福觀研究
    其他題名: The research of the conception of virtue-happiness in pre-Chin dynasty
    作者: 林佩儒;Lin, Pei-ju
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    袁保新;Yuan, Pao-hsin;高柏園;Kao, Po-yuan
    關鍵詞: 德福觀;先秦思想;德福一致;儒家;道家;法家;墨家;The Concetion of Virtue-Happiness;The Thought of Pre-Chin Dynasty;The Accordance between Virtue-Happiness;Confucian;Taoism;Mohist;Legalism
    日期: 2010
    上傳時間: 2010-09-23 17:16:05 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 德福關係做為一個獨立的道德課題,在西方社會已有十分悠久的討論歷史,然而在中國,關於德行與福分關係的看法,都很隱晦支離的散落在各種關於道德或人生的論述之中。但事實上,早在西周初年,德與福已初步建立起某種對應關係,它是中國德福信仰的初始樣貌,中國德福觀以這種原始型態開始它隱而未顯的發展歷程,它對當代及後世的道德信念起著絕對的作用。經本文的梳理可知:西周初年反覆出現君王敬德明德以祈求上天降下天命的論調,可視為德與福的初步連結──君王彰顯好的政治品德以獲取上帝的福佑,永保國家命脈的源遠流長,這是德與福分最初的對應雛型,是透過政治域領表現出來德福觀。

    到了百家爭鳴的春秋戰國時代,德福觀有了多元的發展。首先,在承接周文的儒家方面,孔子的貢獻在於承認命運的同時,為人自身的道德實踐找到內在價值,此價值在回應天命的當下即可得到,是完全自足而不待外求的價值肯定,他的「德」因此在德福的對應關係具有絕對的優位性。而為孔子德性論尋求堅實人性依據的孟子,不僅重德輕福,甚至有崇德抑福的傾向。但在孔子和孟子輕放世俗價值的同時,也都更進一步肯定另一種更高層次的福分,那就是來自道德踐履帶來的悅樂──這種在道德實踐時所獲致自我肯認的高峰體驗,可以弭平個人在窮通禍福遭遇上產生的各種情緒,而達到一種理想的長樂狀態;在這個層次上,內在道德可以保證德福的完全密合,而達到德福一致。至於荀子,他則強調以禮樂制度來保障德福的一致,若發生德福相悖的情形,則以自身修德所呈顯的道德成就來給予自我肯定,這基本上還是儒家以德決定福的路數。

    其次,道家追求的是終極恆定的自然之道,而非不能貞定生命的人間價值。在紛亂的時代,能得到寧靜自足的生命,才是最大的福分,所以老子以虛靜無為之德而致寧靜自足之福,而莊子也追求保有本真的至德境界,在至德境界中,生命在與萬物相融通和諧之中得到圓滿的喜樂,這是道家追求的德福一致。

    至於墨家及法家,前者提出天地鬼神賞善罰惡的主張,以上天做為最高的審判者,裁量人間的功過而給予賞罰,維持一種穩定的德福配稱關係;後者則是完全以政治視角來處理德福的問題,以尊君尚法建立起德福相應的模式,是政治格局下的善惡有報。

    先秦各家在有德者得以配享福的共同認知下,因著對時代理解及人生理想的不同,連帶影響內含在各種政治論、人生論之中的德福觀內涵。總的來看,先秦德福思想可歸納出兩個大致的發展趨向:一是朝精神層面的向上提昇,另一則是往制度面的向下落實。前者有孔孟及老莊,從精神層次上超越德福在現實中相悖的困境,藉由道德實踐來保證福的實現,而完成理想的德福配稱關係;後者則是隨著世局的告急,由荀子、韓非落實為制度層面的發用。其中,下落為度面的德福理論,因它接近社會制度中原本就蘊含的公平正義精神,最終被各種型態的社會正義理念所吸納消融。真正影響深遠的,則是孔孟老莊標舉的修德長樂的德福理想,因具有普遍的人生論意義,因而成為中國後世最重要的道德信念之一。
    The discussion of virtue–happiness relation has been veiled behind and scattering fragmentally in various discussions and texts of life and morality in China, even though as an insulated morality issue, it has a long history of discussions in western society. In fact, as early as Western Zhou Dynasty, the primitive corresponding relationship between virtue and happiness had been initially established as the primary Chinese virtue-happiness belief which started its implicit development then. And it has the absolute influence on the morality belief of the contemporary and future generations. It is believed that through the collation of this paper, it, a reappearing theory in early Western Zhou Dynasty, can be regarded as the initial connection between virtue and happiness that emperors prayed for Gods’ sacred orders by showing their respect for the good virtues. Emperors displayed good political ethics to acquire the blessings from gods and to ensure the eternal and lasting existence of the state. This is the archetype of the virtue-happiness belief, which was demonstrated in the political reign.

    When it came to the Spring-Autumn and Warring States Period, all schools of thoughts contending, virtue-happiness belief had diversified. First, inherited from the culture of Zhou, while recognizing the influence of destiny, Confucius found the self virtue practice the intrinsic value which could be acquired upon replying the call of the Heaven and be recognized by self affirmation free of any external influence. His virtue thus, became the absolute primacy in the corresponding relationship between virtue and happiness. Mencius, who tried to find a solid humane basis for the Confucian virtue belief, not only emphasized virtue while neglecting happiness, he even had a tendency to suppress happiness and revere virtue wholeheartedly.

    However, while Confucius and Mencius disregarded the secular values, they both ascertained a more profound happiness, that is the joy and delight brought by the virtue practice -- an extreme self cultivation and self affirmation experience gained from the virtue practice to heal the negative emotions generated from the fortune and misfortune of life, and to achieve an ideal state of eternal happiness. In this phase, the internal virtues can guarantee a complete harmony and therefore the accordance between virtue and happiness. For Hsun Tze, he emphasized music and rituals to assure the agreement between virtue and happiness. In the case of discord, nonetheless, agreeing fundamentally with the Confucian notion of happiness resulting from virtue practice, Hsun Tzu believed self cultivation achieved high morality and self-affirmation.

    Secondly, the Taoism pursues the ultimate natural and eternal way, rather than the insignificant secular values that mean little to life. Taoists, and Lao Tau
    believe that in chaotic time, the ultimate happiness comes from serene and self-sufficient life which is achieved by the virtue of wu wei. And Chuang Tzu as well, was seeking to maintain the innate ultimate purity virtue in which the great happiness was lead by the harmony of life and nature. This is the accordance between virtue and happiness in Taoism.

    As to the Mohist and Legalism, the former raised the idea of heaven, earth, and spirits rewarding the goodness and punishing the evilness. The Heaven being the ultimate judge, has the divine power to rule on the punishment or reward for human merits or immoral acts, and to maintain an unwavering accordance between virtue and happiness. The latter deals with the problem from the political perspectives. To the Legalism, virtue and happiness correspond with each other through respecting rulers and obeying the law. It is a reward punishment system under the political control.

    With a mutual recognition of virtuous people being worthy of happiness, yet with individual perceptions to life and time, the Pre-Chin philosophers had diverse virtue-happiness concepts concealed behind various political theories or views about life. Overall, the Pre-Chin virtue-happiness thinking can be summarized to two general trends of development: first, the spiritual elevation, and the other is the implementation of social systems. The former are Confucius, Mencius, Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu who overcame spiritually the predicament of discord between virtue and happiness by virtue practice to realize happiness and to achieve ideal virtue-happiness accordance. The latters are Hsun Tzu and Hanfei Tzu who implemented social organization and orders in chaotic society. However, the virtue-happiness notion in the social systems, eventually had been immersed in the various social fairness and justices which were extremely similar to the notion. What truly created a profound influence was the virtue-happiness ideal advocated by Confucius, Mencius, Lao Tzu, and Chuang Tzu. The ideal of virtue and moral integrity change leading to the eternal happiness, and with the universal meaning of life, has become one of the most important Chinese moral beliefs over the years.
    顯示於類別:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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