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    題名: 「探求者」作家群文學困境論 : 一個「右派」作家群的歷史、社會與美學考察
    其他題名: A study of the history, society and aesthetics of the “rightist” writers and their works
    作者: 黃文倩;Huang, Wen-chien
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    呂正惠;Lu, Cheng-hui
    關鍵詞: 「右派」;「探求者」;社會主義現實主義;批判現實主義;公共視野;Rightist;Explorers;Social-realism;Critical-realism;Public Perspective
    日期: 2010
    上傳時間: 2010-09-23 17:15:41 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 「探求者」是中國大陸「雙百」期間(1956-1957年)出現的一個同人刊物與作家群的總稱,是大陸「右派」世代作家群的一個重要有機的部分。本研究以此個案的文學作品為中心,結合社會、歷史與美學的詮釋方法,縱橫地討論中國大陸「右派」世代跟俄蘇社會主義現實主義、批判現實主義、中國古典白話小說傳統、毛澤東文藝傳統間的接受關係,進一步分析與釐清造成其各階段文學困境的創作立場、世界觀、社會主義經驗等的歷史生產基礎。

    「探求者」一生兼有五四知識分子的啟蒙立場,以及毛「講話」以降的人民姿態。這種「雙重姿態/立場」的混合及其消長,左右了他們的創作與基調。在五○年代中期,他們將教條化的「社會主義現實主義」,理解成「社會主義現實主義」的「可能性本身」,混淆了某種文學觀念的可能性、可建構性與歷史實踐性質的差異,也長期地影響了他們在世界觀深度的發展的空間。改革開放後,「探求者」的世界觀中的特質是:在最佳的狀況下,他們對文學淵源的典範學習,有更寬廣的古今中外兼收的眼光,而在選擇材料、處理題材、塑造人物、運用語言時,亦能透過豐富口語的白話,來對「生活整體性」進行探求,因此改革開放的1978-1984年間的作品,是「探求者」及許多具有代表性的「右派」世代一生創作的高峰,具有相對較高的文學成就、公共視野與史料認識意義,值得學界重新重視。1985年以後,由於世界觀受限於早年的文藝思想水平,創作姿態也愈往知識分子立場偏移,再加上西方思潮大舉進入中國、改革開放下資本主義經濟發展日漸成為主導的力量,也使得「探求者」的文學創作,有愈來愈明顯的實用主義的世界觀,並被一己經驗性的價值感所限制,再在去政治化的連動性的綜合作用下,他們此階段文學作品的感情、公共視野、力量與傾向,愈來愈走向弱化、窄化與重抽象精神的現象。日後「知青」世代的文學困境,亦能在此發現歷史基因。但此階段文學中的許多對社會主義歷史經驗的再聯繫與回溫的碎片,仍不無再認識與啟發意義。本研究的發現即在當中—突破既有的文學史的傷痕、改革、反思的舊式框架,直接細微地揭示與重構此困境的「歷史生產」過程,增加對「右派」世代研究的各式細節分析與新的論述聯繫。整體來說,他們是我思考兩岸與第三世界國家文學困境與文學發展的一種嘗試基礎與社會實踐。
    The “Explorers” is a term referring to a group of writers and their literary magazines that appeared during the period of 1956-1957. They are important writers belonging to the “rightist” group of writers in China Mainland. The main focus of this thesis is a case study of the works of these writers. The analysis also combines social historical and aesthetics approaches to explore how the “reception” relationships between the “rightist” generation of writers and the Soviet social-realism, critical realism, the tradition of classical Chinese colloquial fiction, and the literary thoughts of Mao Zedong. The writers’ dilemmas caused by these elements on their writing methods, world views and social experiences are discussed.

    The life-long view of literature of the “Explorers” are grounded in the theory of enlightenment promoted by the intellectual of the May Fourth Movement and the people-oriented literature stressed by Mao Zedong in his “Yanan Talk on Literature”. The main directions and themes of their writings are based on these two principles. During the 1950s, part of the social realism was their main doctrine for writing which was effectively limiting the space and depth of their exploration. After 1976 when China first started to relax relatively the freedom of writing, the “explorers” liberated themselves to write all aspects of life by practicing all kinds of literary techniques and principles. During the period of 1978-1984, the “explorers” and other representative “rightist” writers produced many high quality works with literary merits. However, when the door of China opened widely to the world after 1985, the “explorers”, who were limited by their old literary theory and world views, began to decline. Being obsessed with pragmatic literary thinking, they were too conservative to compete with the new generation of writers who dared to experiment with new forms of writing.

    The “rightist” writers and their works were mainly studied in terms of “Literature of the wounds”, “literature of change” and “literature of searching the past” in the past. The present study attempts to develop a new approach to understand and analyze all aspects of the “rightist” writers and their works. This model of approach also can be applied to the study of the dilemma of the development of literature and society of Taiwan, China Mainland and the “third world countries”.
    顯示於類別:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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