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    Title: 從朱子的讀書法論其修養工夫
    Other Titles: A study of cultivation from Zhu Xi’s reading method
    Authors: 呂銘崴;Leu, Ming-wei
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士班
    楊祖漢;Yang, Tsu-han;高柏園;Kuo, Po-yuan
    Keywords: 朱子;;讀書法;博學;精熟;虛心;讀書次第;切己;;動力根源;Zhu Xi;Xin;Reading Method;extensive learning;proficient;hsu-xin;the order of Reading;personal concern;Respect;the emotions of respect and fear
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 17:12:55 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文旨在通過對朱熹的讀書法的分析,來重新審視其工夫理論,進而反省這樣的一種工夫他的意義與限制為何。論文共分五章,結構上,第一章為緒論部分,主要針對朱熹思想發展、前人研究與問題以及研究方法做一敘述,而於二、三、四章展開文獻的討論與詮釋。第五章則對全文討論做一簡短回顧,並略述其工夫論的當代教育價值。
    對於朱熹關於心的理解,主導著我們對於朱熹工夫論的認識,因此我們首先經由對朱熹中和舊說文獻的分析,指出了朱熹學與孟子學二者之間的差異,並且說明了朱熹理氣二分、與心性情三分的基本理論架構。在這種架構下,朱熹依著「氣強理弱」的觀點解釋了惡的來源,說明了吾人道德修養的目的,其目的正在恢復心與性理之間的本來貫通的狀態。接著我們分析了朱熹關於心的「知覺」在哲學中的意義,並依循陳北溪「心是理氣之合」的說法,來重新解釋朱熹對於心的規定,以此說明心與性理之間溝通的可能性。
    在朱熹的讀書法上,我們由博學、精熟、虛心、讀書次第還有切己作為中心,將圍繞於此的十二項與讀書法有關的議題逐步進行說明,並以之呈現出讀書法的輪廓與實踐的具體步驟。我們認為朱熹說的博學是關聯著聖人氣象與心性論的要求,精熟則與恢復本來貫通的狀態有關,至於虛心的說法則可用以說明朱熹強調的讀書,與我們現今理解的純粹知識性閱讀不同,它更重在體會經典中的道德意義,以此來逐步涵養我們的生命。最後在先讀《四書》,後讀史書的讀書次第中,我們注意到讀書本身就是道德實踐,同時是強調不斷自我體會、涵養的一種生命的學問。
    在論述了格物致知與讀書法的關聯之後,我們將眼光轉往朱熹對於敬的理解上,以探尋在他的學說中,關於道德行為的可能動力來源,以提供在他律倫理學系統的劃分下,道德行為在朱熹學說中產生的可能基礎。並且對這份源自心對於性理的認識,進而產生的一種敬畏之情給出評價。
    The thesis aims at reconsidering cultivation from Zhu Xi in his reading method and deeply reflecting its meaning and limitation. Five chapters are included in the thesis. Chapter one is an introduction to Zhu Xi’s thought development, a brief review of research, and some descriptions of research method. The discussion and elaboration of research review are developed in chapter two, three and four. The last part, chapter five, is a quick review of the thesis and a full discussion about the values of his cultivation in modern education.
    The understanding of Zhu Xi’s opinion about mind leads us to know his cultivation theory. In this case, the first thing we need to differentiate Zhu Xi’s school from Mencius school in terms of the discussion in earlier research. The research puts more emphasis on the construction of Zhu Xi’s Li-Qi dichotomy and Xin-Xing-Qing trichotomy. With the perspective of Qi jiang li ruo, Zhu Xi explains the origin of and the purpose of our ethical cultivation—to recover the consistent condition of Xing-li. In addition, the analysis of Zhu Xi’s perspective and meaning toward consciousness in philosophy. According to Chen, Bei-Xi, he argues that “mind as synthesis of Li-Qi”. This thesis tries to use a different interpretation about Zhu Xi’s definition of mind and to tell the possibility of communication between mind and Xing-li in terms of Chen’s arguments.
    In Zhu Xi’s Reading Method, the focus is put on extensive learning, proficiency, hsu-xin, the order of reading, and personal concern. Twelve related reading issues are contained to sketch the outline and concrete steps for practice. To be more specific, in Zhu Xi’s perspective, extensive learning is connected with the demand of Disposition of the Sages and Ontology; proficiency is connected with the recovery of consistent condition of Xing-li; and hsu-xin can be used to clarify the difference of the definition of knowledge Zhu Xi’s and what we assume today. Zhu Xi considered that we study to experience the mortality from masterpieces so that we can cultivate our lives. The last reading method, the order of reading and personal concern, Zhu Xi recommended to read Sus-shu first, then historical records. Meanwhile, it can be noticed that study itself acts as a way to make ethics realized while we are continually self-actualized in the study.
    At last, in order to seize the possible foundation of ethical behaviors in his theory to support his heteronomous ethics, we shift the focus from the connection between Ke-wu-chih-chih and reading methods to Zhu Xi’s perspective and understanding of Respect. In addition, with the Respect from our minds toward Xing-li, we will generate the emotions of respect and fear, commenting on its pro and cons.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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