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    題名: 同步生產之多人工作站的生產線平衡問題之研究
    其他題名: Simultaneous perspective-based assembly line balancing problem with multi-manned workstations
    作者: 張東孟;Chang, Tung-meng
    貢獻者: 淡江大學管理科學研究所博士班
    張紘炬;Chang, Horng-jinh
    關鍵詞: 組裝線平衡;同步生產;多人工作站;作業編碼系統;Assembly line balancing;Simultaneous Production;Multi-manned Workstation;Task Code System
    日期: 2010
    上傳時間: 2011-01-05 15:19:01 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 生產線平衡是許多生產系統進行生產線設計時的重要主題。為了滿足顧客期望及不斷變化的市場需求,生產線產出率必須能因應產品需求的變動。然而生產線平衡將影響工廠的生產產能與生產資源配置等決策,進而決定產品生產線的產出率。傳統的生產線平衡問
    題是以循序指派方式進行生產線作業指派,在滿足各種限制下,尋求各種目標函數之最佳化。
    在車輛最後組裝階段、大型家電等大型產品的生產組裝下,其同一工作站常需多人同步進行生產組裝。所謂作業的同步生產,即在一多人工作站上多位操作人員可同步執行同一產品之相同或不同作業。當生產線平衡問題考慮同步生產時,生產線平衡問題將變得更
    複雜。本研究考慮作業在單邊直線之生產線上同步生產組裝下,建立多人工作站之組裝線平衡問題的最佳化數學模型。在第二章針對本研究之問題加以說明,並提出進行同步指派時可能遭遇的問題:如共同作業的指派問題,同一零件不同作業路徑之共同作業指派時的重複指派等問題。為了使同步指派之問題得以解決,本章究提出以零件之作業路徑做為同步指派作業的方式,進行各零件作業之多人工作站指派,即被指派至多人工作站之每一零件的部分作業由一位操作員負責執行。亦提出一套作業編碼系統,俾作業之重新編碼及問題之求解。
    本研究針對最普遍的單邊直線之生產線平衡問題:單一產品類別與混合產品類別的生產線平衡問題,在第三、四章探討此兩種模型在同步生產的情況下,考慮指派限制、先行關係限制、週程時間限制、共同作業限制及工作站限制等限制式,建構目標函數為指派工作站數最小化之數學模型,並根據最佳解進一步指派各工作站所需之人數及計算生產線之閒置率。另外,針對上述之數學模型提出範例說明其求解之過程,且為了了解在不同的週程時間下,上述兩種不同數學模型之最佳解的變化,亦分別在第三、四章進行數值模擬與模型的績效分析。最後,在第五章針對上述提出之問題模型探討做一總結,同時也提出未來可持續研究的方向。
    Assembly line balancing is an important subject of many production systems whenever the line design is performed. The output rate of the line must deal with
    the change in the demand of various products so as to satisfy the customers’expectation and the fluctuant market demands. However, assembly line balancing will affect the decisions on the capacity of a factory and the resource allocations, and then the output rate of the line is decided. In the traditional assembly line balancing problems, the assignment of tasks to an assembly line is in sequential way, and some different objectives are optimized under satisfying various constraints while performing a line balancing.
    Assembly lines with multi-manned workstations, where workers simultaneously perform different tasks on the same workstation, are widely used in producing large-sized products such as the case of vehicle’s final assembly. Therefore, this research considers the simultaneous production for tasks. That is, workers simultaneously perform same or different tasks on the same product and
    workstation in an assembly line. Whenever a simultaneous production is allowed for the entire tasks in an assembly line, the assembly line balancing problems become more complicated. In this paper, the mathematical optimization models for the assembly line balancing problems with multi-manned workstations are proposed under considering the simultaneous production, and the tasks assignments to a multi-manned workstation are performed in terms of the task
    routes of individual part. That is, the partial tasks belonging to a part, which are assigned into a multi-manned workstation, are performed by one worker. In
    Chapter 2, a statement of the problem we deal with is given, and some problems, such as the assignment of the common tasks, encountered in performing simultaneous tasks assignments are described. A coding system, Four-Position
    Code (FPC), is also proposed to re-code the tasks to tackle above issue.
    In this study, the single-model and mixed-model assembly line balancing problems are considered. Hence, the mathematical optimization models for the above-mentioned assembly line balancing problems with simultaneous production are proposed in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4, respectively. The objective functions of the proposed models are to minimize the number of workstations of the assembly line under the following constraints: assignment constraints, precedence constraints, cycle time constraints, and workstations constraints. And then, based on the optimal results, the number of workers is assigned to each workstation of the line, and the total idle rate of the line is also computed. In addition, the proposed models are further clarified by some illustrative examples, and simulation analyses for various cycle times and performance of the proposed model are also conducted.
    顯示於類別:[管理科學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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