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    Title: 本土化導向生命週期評估模式建立 : 以DVD-R光碟製程為例
    Other Titles: Localization oriented life cycle assessment model construction for DVD-R manufacturing
    Authors: 黃蘭雅;Huang, Lan-ya
    Contributors: 淡江大學管理科學研究所企業經營碩士在職專班
    林長青;Lin, Chang-ching
    Keywords: 生命週期評估;CML2001;本土化;DVD-R光碟片;Life cycle assessment;CML2001;LCA Localization;DVD-R
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 16:16:11 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 由於消費者環保意識提升,企業需兼顧綠色消費及國際環保法規,企業提供給消費者的環保條件和數據,已經由自發性的環境管理宣示演變成需要獲得公正第三者驗證的驗證性環境管理。

    臺灣較晚導入生命週期評估的技術,本土化資料庫較為缺乏。因此,本研究方法先採用國外生命週期資料庫計算DVD-R光碟片對環境衝擊的特徵值,再選用國內外既有之電力資料庫進行特徵值比對,以此為本方法之基準,進而修正所需資料庫之係數而為本土化適用,以協助本國廠商在缺乏本土適用資料庫與盤查數據時,得到產品初步環境衝擊的預測值,並為因應國際生命週期或碳足跡之認證,提出相關作業程序之建議。

      臺灣每年光碟片平均產量約為106.12億片,為全球市場佔有率最高的國家,隨著市場競爭激烈,在光碟片製造過程中,使用回收料已成光碟片產業降低成本的必要手段。因此,本研究以光碟片為實例,進行符合目前生產模式的光碟片生命週期評估研究。

      本研究利用生命週期評估的概念、生命週期評估軟體GaBi及環境衝擊指標CML2001為評估模式,針對容量4.7G的DVD-R光碟片進行本土化導向的生命週期評估,研究範圍由原料開採生產、運輸、光碟片製造及廠內回收。

      本研究生命週期評估本土化修正的建議步驟為 (1) 先引用國外資料庫計算環境衝擊;(2) 建立本土化相對比較係數,建立特徵化數值資料庫; (3) 修正為本土化資料庫; (4) 設立變數與情境。完成以上建議步驟後,進行平衡計算結果,可得本土化修正後之環境衝擊預測值。

      經本土化修正後的計算結果分為四部分,以一片容量4.7G DVD-R光碟片為功能單位為基本,對環境衝擊的程度量化如下:
    (1) 資源使用部分: 耗用1.2049 Kg的水及8.0617 MJ的能源。
    (2) 污染排放部分: 經過CML2001特徵化指標計算後,造成的全球暖化效應(GWP100 years)為0.53415 Kg CO2-Equiv.、酸化效應為0.00458 Kg SO2-Equiv.、優養化為0.00032 Kg Phosphate-Equiv.、臭氧層稀薄化為0.000003 Kg R11-Equiv.、光化學氧化效應為0.00064 Kg Ethene-Equiv.。
    (3) 其他排出部份: 固體廢棄物0.00041 Kg、液體廢棄物0.00017Kg。
    (4) 環境衝擊熱點:原料製造階段對環境衝擊較大,其次為光碟製造回收階段的能源消耗。電力的消耗對全球暖化效應及酸化有較顯著的衝擊。
    As consumers raise the awareness of environmental protection, the enterprises seek for the most profitable approaches to comply with the international environmental regulations. Enterprises are required to provide consumers the environmental performance evaluation and declaration for their products by laws. To get the environmental performance verification by the third party is the most important issue for companies in Taiwan now.

    Since the life cycle assessment techniques is not well developed for Taiwan’s companies who usually are lack of inventory data for local implementation efficiently. In this research, the foreign life cycle databases, the German’s, are used to calculate the environmental impact of the DVD-R discs. By taking the German’s as the reference database, the existing databases of German’s and Taiwan’s power grid mix in the LCA software (GaBi4 Education) are compared to get the factors of the characteristic values. Finally, these factors are used as free parameters to adjust the other German’s databases to Taiwan’s databases for the DVD-R disc LCA process.

    Based on our study, the annual production of DVD-R is about 10.612 billion in average in Taiwan, which has the highest market share in the world. However, the market of the DVD-R is getting heavy competition, the price is heading lower. The DVD-R manufacturing processes, taking the closed loop recycling, has become a necessary means for reducing cost also lower impact to the environment.

    Our model is implemented by using the life cycle assessment software GaBi4 education and the characteristic indicator from CML2001. The memory capacity of a DVD-R blank disc is 4.7G. The scope of this research includes the following stages: the mining of raw materials, transportation, manufacturing, and the closed-loop recycling.

    Four steps are recommended to adjust the databases in the life cycle assessment software for local adaption.

    (1) Calculate the environmental impact by using the foreign databases.
    (2) Taking the original foreign databases as the reference, get the localized factors for characterization values.
    (3) Amend the foreign databases into localized databases.
    (4) Take the free parameters to control the different scenarios.

    The results in this research show that a 4.7G DVD-R could have following environmental impacts.
    (1) In the resources using section: Consumption of 1.2049 Kg of water and 8.0617 MJ of energy.
    (2) Pollution section: By converting into CML2001 characterization indicator, the result of global warming (GWP 100 years) is 0.53415 Kg CO2-Equiv., acidification effect is 0.00458 Kg SO2-Equiv., eutrophication is 0.00032 Kg Phosphate-Equiv., Ozone layer is 0.000003 Kg R11-Equiv., photochemical oxidation effect is 0.00064 Kg Ethene-Equiv.
    (3) Other discharges material: Solid waste 0.00041 Kg, liquid waste 0.00017Kg.
    (4) The environmental impact of hot spots: This study shows the processing of raw materials containing greater impact on the environment. Electricity usage has more significant effect on the global warming and acidification impact.
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Management Sciences] Thesis

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