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    Title: 人文國民中小學實踐有機體學校課程之探究
    Other Titles: A study on the humanities elementary and junior high school practice the organic school curriculum
    Authors: 李光莒;Li, Guang-jyu
    Contributors: 淡江大學課程與教學研究所碩士班
    游家政
    Keywords: 有機體學校;課程實踐;適性教育;Organic schools;Curriculum praxis;Adaptive education
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:23:33 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 課程唯一不變的原則,就是課程不斷地在改變。
    自1859年達爾文發表《物種起源》解釋有機體的演化如何發生!生物演化論就不斷地衝擊和影響人們的思想與生活。英國社會學者 Spencer、美國學者Bronfenbrenner及德國社會學者Luhmann都將生物學的有機體觀點移植到社會學,也因此提供了近代教育思潮的有機養分,將社會與教育比喻為一個有機體,不斷地演化,適應與變動。1920年代,Dewey提出進步教育觀點來取代傳統教育;1975年,Pinar更進一步將課程從靜態的結構,概念重建為動態的歷程,他採用拉丁文課程的不定詞形式currere,描述課程的動態歷程,以區別傳統curriculum 所代表的靜態結構。及至80年代,Doll及Slattery採用開放的觀點來看待後現代課程的發展,重新將課程發展導引向有機典範的課程觀點。
    有機體學校在這樣的一個後現代主義氛圍的環境下,以一種動態的課程觀點,重新詮釋、建構學校組織與課程。並且因為研究學校特殊的動態組織課程,強調照顧好每一個學生的適性教育歷程。而發展出獨特的有機體學校課程模式,使得每一個有機體(學生)都能充分的適性發展與進化。
    本研究企圖以一所公辦民營的中小學實施有機學校課程作為研究標的,透過教育俗民誌研究進入研究學校進行資料收集,透過局內人的觀點闡述該校有機體動態課程的實施與實踐。進一步,由行政人員、教師、學生與家長等不同角色,從課程,教學與學習的角度,探究有機體學校的課程發展、教師專業與課程實踐的困境與解決策略。
    研究結論發現人文學校以有機體的「動態」「生長」「適性」「感應」等生命現象來作為學校經營與課程實踐的元素,並且運用從生物學轉化而來的系統理論作為學校經營與課程建構的立論基礎。研究也同時發現人文學校運用有機體概念在Schwab課程慎思元素的層疊交融互動中實踐課程,並解決課程實踐所面對的困境。
    關鍵字:有機體學校;課程實踐;適性教育
    The everlasting principle of courses—the courses themselves keep on changing.
    Since Darwin explained how an organism develops with his well-known The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859, the evolution of living creatures has been had direct effects and impacts on human being’s life and thoughts. People like an English sociologist Spencer, American scholar Bronfenbrenner, and Germany sociologist Luhmann all agreeably transplant the organic perspective in biology into sociology. Therefore, their efforts have provided the current education philosophy with “organic” nutrients, making a metaphorical statement that society along with education is like an organism—everlastingly evolves, adjusts, and changes. During 1920’s, Dewey took a further step to substitute the static form of courses with a dynamic trajectory. By adopting the infinitive form of “currere” in Latin, he illustrated the dynamic events of courses instead of the static state represented by the typical “curriculum.” And it is not until 1980’s when Doll and Slattery takes up open-minded perspective to evaluate Post-modernist courses’ development, redirecting courses development into a perspective that enables an organic model.
    Under the circumstance of a Post-modernist aura, organic schools redefine and rebuild schools’ configuration and courses with a dynamic philosophy. By surveying schools’ particular curricular structure, organic schools focus on the careful design of adaptive education for every pupil. They generate peculiar organic schools’ course models and make every organism’s (student’s) adaptive development and evolution come into a full play.
    This study aims to set a school, run by private management of public management, as our survey target. With educational ethnography, we enter the target school to collect data and explicate this school’s organic curricular practice. Furthermore, different roles in the school like administrators, teachers, students and parents will discover the dilemma and solving methods of curricular development, teachers’ professional and curricular practices by probing with teaching and learning perspectives.
    This essay comes to realize that liberal arts schools can name their elements of management and curricular practice with certain organic labels, like “dynamic,” “growth,” “adaptive,” and “irritability.” They are also able to make good use of biologically translated systematical theories as the foundational school management and curricular construction. This study at the same time discloses that liberal arts schools can apply the idea of organism to Schwab courses’ overlapping, interacting commonplaces for courses of practice. By doing so, the dilemma that appears after courses of practice is thus solved.


    Keywords: Organic schools, Curriculum praxis, Adaptive education
    Appears in Collections:[課程與教學研究所] 學位論文

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