自1859年達爾文發表《物種起源》解釋有機體的演化如何發生！生物演化論就不斷地衝擊和影響人們的思想與生活。英國社會學者 Spencer、美國學者Bronfenbrenner及德國社會學者Luhmann都將生物學的有機體觀點移植到社會學，也因此提供了近代教育思潮的有機養分，將社會與教育比喻為一個有機體，不斷地演化，適應與變動。1920年代，Dewey提出進步教育觀點來取代傳統教育；1975年，Pinar更進一步將課程從靜態的結構，概念重建為動態的歷程，他採用拉丁文課程的不定詞形式currere，描述課程的動態歷程，以區別傳統curriculum 所代表的靜態結構。及至80年代，Doll及Slattery採用開放的觀點來看待後現代課程的發展，重新將課程發展導引向有機典範的課程觀點。
The everlasting principle of courses—the courses themselves keep on changing.
Since Darwin explained how an organism develops with his well-known The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859, the evolution of living creatures has been had direct effects and impacts on human being’s life and thoughts. People like an English sociologist Spencer, American scholar Bronfenbrenner, and Germany sociologist Luhmann all agreeably transplant the organic perspective in biology into sociology. Therefore, their efforts have provided the current education philosophy with “organic” nutrients, making a metaphorical statement that society along with education is like an organism—everlastingly evolves, adjusts, and changes. During 1920’s, Dewey took a further step to substitute the static form of courses with a dynamic trajectory. By adopting the infinitive form of “currere” in Latin, he illustrated the dynamic events of courses instead of the static state represented by the typical “curriculum.” And it is not until 1980’s when Doll and Slattery takes up open-minded perspective to evaluate Post-modernist courses’ development, redirecting courses development into a perspective that enables an organic model.
Under the circumstance of a Post-modernist aura, organic schools redefine and rebuild schools’ configuration and courses with a dynamic philosophy. By surveying schools’ particular curricular structure, organic schools focus on the careful design of adaptive education for every pupil. They generate peculiar organic schools’ course models and make every organism’s (student’s) adaptive development and evolution come into a full play.
This study aims to set a school, run by private management of public management, as our survey target. With educational ethnography, we enter the target school to collect data and explicate this school’s organic curricular practice. Furthermore, different roles in the school like administrators, teachers, students and parents will discover the dilemma and solving methods of curricular development, teachers’ professional and curricular practices by probing with teaching and learning perspectives.
This essay comes to realize that liberal arts schools can name their elements of management and curricular practice with certain organic labels, like “dynamic,” “growth,” “adaptive,” and “irritability.” They are also able to make good use of biologically translated systematical theories as the foundational school management and curricular construction. This study at the same time discloses that liberal arts schools can apply the idea of organism to Schwab courses’ overlapping, interacting commonplaces for courses of practice. By doing so, the dilemma that appears after courses of practice is thus solved.
Keywords: Organic schools, Curriculum praxis, Adaptive education