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    Title: 論歐盟氣候變遷政策中英國扮演的角色
    Other Titles: Britain's role in combating climate change policy of the European Union
    Authors: 戴嘉慧;Tai, Chia-hui
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    謝福助;Hsieh, Fu-chu;卓忠宏;Cho, Chung-hung
    Keywords: 氣候變遷;京都議定書;歐盟;英國;Climate Change;Kyoto Protocol;European Union;United Kingdom
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:16:58 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來氣候極端異常,使得氣候變遷成為全球性議題。1992年聯合國《氣候變化綱要公約》之簽訂,奠定世界各國對抗氣候變遷之框架,並於1997年簽訂《京都議定書》,其規定附件一簽約國家應以1990年之二氧化碳排放量為基準,減低其量5.2%。歐盟在全球對抗氣候變遷之中表現積極。訂立《京都議定書》隔年,歐盟達成分擔協議,依照會員國經濟發展來減低其碳排放,並提出氣候變遷政策,以一系列措施顯示歐盟邁向低碳與提高能源效率之決心。歐盟成立排放交易機制,利用市場機制達到減碳之效果,並鼓勵再生能源使用,以達到節能與潔能之效果。

    歐盟會員國都執行《京都議定書》之際,一向和歐洲持有不同立場的英國於以積極配合實施歐盟之措施。在80年代,英國因對於其國家主權的執著,使英國一直對於歐盟整合持有排斥之態度,並將環境議題視為國內事務,不允許歐盟插手,這使得英國獲得 “Dirty Man of Europe”之汙名。到了90年代在全球時勢驅駛以及外界對其輿論與當局領導者之利益偏好改變,使氣候變遷議題在英國變得受到重視。因當時美國之環境領導地位逐漸下滑,並在退出《京都議定書》時降至谷底,因此提供給歐盟大好機會有所展現。這些因素使英國改變態度,選擇積極配合歐盟之氣候變遷之政策與執行相關措施。本文擬透過理性選擇制度主義理論,分析英國在歐盟對抗氣候變遷中扮演的角色,並探討英國基於理性選擇,改變其態度與行為,以及研究英國執行歐盟氣候變遷政策之成效,和最後英國轉變對歐洲之意涵。
    In recent years, the weather has moved towards global weirding making climate change an ad hoc issue universally. The United Nations Framework of Climate Change was signed in 1992 upon which member states combating climate change will be based and started off a series of consultative conferences, among which signed the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 regulating the Annex B countries to reduce CO2 emissions by 5.2% on the premise of the level of 1990. The European Union (EU) plays an active role in fighting climate change. EU reached a Burden Sharing Agreement in 1998 which EU member states decreases its emissions according to respective economic development and proposed a climate change policy unfolding a series of measures that reveals the determination of EU moving towards a low-carbon, high-energy efficient economy. The establishment of EU emissions trading scheme uses market mechanism to cut carbon emission and the renewables are encouraged so as to reach both clean and efficient energy.

    Britain, unlike it used to hold different positions within the EU, this time actively ties in and puts EU policy into practice. In the 80s, Britain, due to the obduracy to its national sovereignty, always remained doubted and kept defensive while EU came to approach. Britain considered environmental issues domestic affairs without the interference of the EU contributing to Britain obtaining the name of Dirty Man of Europe. During 90s, the spur of global trend in climate change, the stress from the public, and the change of leader’s intended interests affected Britain to value climate change. At that time, the leading position of the U.S., especially in the environmental matters, was downgrading, reaching to the bottom after withdrawing from Kyoto Protocol which, hence, provided a window of opportunity for EU to take the lead. Both exogenous and endogenous reasons caused Britain to alter her attitude to tie up with the EU and implement relating climate change measures. This thesis analyzes Britain’s position towards EU combating climate change via Rational Choice Institutionalism as well as explores Britain based on rational choice that altered her attitude and behavior, the performance of implementation in EU climate change policy, and the implication of the change of Britain towards the EU and the world.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of European Studies] Thesis

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