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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/51432


    Title: 非政府組織架構下的公平貿易運動 : 以公平貿易咖啡為例
    Other Titles: Fair trade movement under NGO structure : a study-case of fair trade coffee
    Authors: 許哲豪;Hsu, Che-hao
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    苑倚曼
    Keywords: 非政府組織;公平貿易;咖啡;Non-governmental Organization;Fair Trade;Coffee
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:16:49 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 二次世界大戰後,全球貿易在保護主義的影響下萎縮了許多。在關稅暨貿易總協定GATT(今日世界貿易組織WTO的前身)成立後,致力於消除各國的關稅與各種貿易障礙,全球的貿易活動逐漸復甦,也帶來了可觀的財富與權力。但是隨著自由貿易的蓬勃發展,區域間的不平衡與差異也逐漸擴大。位於北半球的歐美先進國家與南半球的開發中國家,甚至是低度開發國家間的貧富差距已經讓人無法忍受。加上跨國企業在各個領域中,對以原料出口為主的開發中國家農民的剝削,使得農民的付出與其所得完全無法相比。在貿易的自由主義盛行之下,已開發國家的政府應該思考,自由貿易是否為全體人類帶來應有的福祉?
    本研究採用文獻分析法並輔以案例分析,以公平貿易咖啡為主要研究案例。內容共分為五章:第一章「緒論」;第二章「全球化下的國際貿易局勢」;第三章「非政府組織理論與發展」;第四章「全球公平貿易以及主要咖啡認證系統剖析」及第五章「結論」。
    面對南半球與北半球貧富差距日漸擴大的情況下,以北半球的國際非政府組織為首的許多國際非政府組織開始站出來協助低度開發國家的人民,從人權、糧食與貧窮的方面著手,開始改善當地的生活環境。非政府組織可以彌補各國政府在有限的資源與人力下面對貧窮等問題的不足之處;從派遣義工到提供生活必需用品都隨時可以見到國際紅十字會、樂施會等國際非政府組織的蹤影。其中本文欲探討的「公平貿易運動」就是由許多國際非政府組織所發起的活動,公平貿易的主旨在於追求更公平的貿易條件並確保被邊緣化的勞工及生產者的權益(特別是南半球),同時致力於生產地的永續發展。本文以咖啡豆為例探討公平貿易產品從生產到包裝行銷的過程;以小型農場的形式栽種,待收成時將成品運送到各地的農產合作社,再由公平貿易商以合理的價格向合作社收購,最後再以「公平貿易咖啡豆」的名義送到位於北半球的消費者手中。本文的目的則是希望以非政府組織的發展理論來探討在公平貿易架構下,政府、企業及非政府組織間的互動關係以及公平貿易之整體成效。
    After World War II international trade was curtailed by world-wide depression and by national restriction and protectionist measures. Global trade did not recover until the establishment of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT, the predecessor of the WTO) with the goal of eliminating trade barriers. A series of measures enforced by GATT restored global trade, and the world economy began to thrive again. However, unrestricted free trade and risky activities by opportunists deepened the disparity between North and South Hemispheres and allowed the exploitation of primary goods producing nations by transnational corporations. As a specific instance, Southern Hemisphere agricultural workers are not guaranteed fair compensation for their year round work. Consequently, it is questionable whether free trade benefits everyone.
    The research method adopted for this thesis is case study and document analysis. The content of this paper are as follows: Introduction, discussion of international trading situation, analysis of the development and theory of non-governmental organizations (NGOS), exploration of the prospects of fair trade and other coffee certification systems, and conclusion.
    NGOs from Northern Hemisphere countries, such as Red Cross and Oxfam, have started many social programs and international aid missions to help producers suffering from poverty and diseases by providing such assistance as clean water and medical services. The scope of these NGOs’ mission is very extensive, and one of the most important engagements is fair trade. The main purposes of fair trade are to connect disadvantaged producers with advantaged consumers, promote fairer trading conditions, and empower producers to combat poverty and take more control over their lives.
    This thesis takes coffee industry as a case study to examine the implementation of the fair trade goals of NGOs. The case study considers coffee growing, harvest, delivery, pricing, and fair trade in consumer markets. The performance of fair trade and the relationships among governments, markets and NGOs under a fair trade system are analyzed.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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