Joseph S. Nye and Robert O. Keohane developed the concepts of complex interdependence in 1977. They believed there were three characteristics of the international system after WWII including “multiple channels among societies”, “absence of hierarchy among issues” and “minor role of military force in foreign affairs”. In the past, Realism considered that nation states were the main actors in international politics, military force was the best tool for diplomatic development and high politics such as military security leaded low politics including economic and social affairs. However, the concepts of Realism could hardly explain the international interactions after WWII. The interactions between EU and Central America have actually reflected the situation mentioned above.
The Central American crisis in 1979 has leaded EU and Central America establishing their bilateral relations. In 1984 EC and Central America held the first San Jose Dialogue declaring Central American conflicts should be solved by peaceful approaches and the postwar recoveries would be accomplished by EC and Central America. Furthermore, EU and Central America have signed Luxembourg Agreement in 1985 which has started the multilateral cooperation between regions, El Salvador Agreement in 1993, Rome Agreement in 2003, and EU-Central America Association Agreement in 2010 which has included mutual cooperation in diverse fields and the free trade agreement (FTA) in order to deepen the bilateral relations.
In addition, except official political dialogue, EU and Central America have also contacted through semi-official and non-official channels. These channels are very important on promoting relations between EU and Central America. For interactions between EU and Central America, using multiple diplomatic tools, cooperating on multiple issues and contacting through multiple channels are the key points to maintain the cooperative relations of two parties.