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    题名: 以複合式互賴角度看歐盟對中美洲政策
    其它题名: The EU's Policies toward Central America: from the perspectives of Complex interdependence
    作者: 吳幼婷;Wu, Yu-ting
    贡献者: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    卓忠宏;Cho, Chung-hung
    日期: 2010
    摘要:   奈伊與基歐漢兩位學者於1977年提出「複合式互賴理論」,其認為二次世界大戰後的國際體系有三大特色,包括了:「社會間存在多層級的聯繫管道」、「國家間的合作議題並無明確階級之分」,以及「以軍事手段作為外交工具的重要性降低」,意旨以往現實主義認定國家為主要的行為者、軍事武力是發展外交最有利的工具,且軍事安全此等高階政治主導著經濟和社會事務等低階政治的看法,已無法全面解釋二次世界大戰後的國際互動情形,從歐盟與中美洲的互動情形上,也可獲得相當印證。
      歐盟主要運用「經貿」、「援助」,以及「政治」等外交工具,發展其與中美洲的關係,同時藉由雙方所簽署的區域多邊合作協定,發展多面向的合作領域,1979年對雙方而言是一個重要的年代,中美洲內戰危機的發生,使中美洲成為國際關注的焦點,有別於美國將該事件的起因歸因於東西對抗,歐體則認定中美洲的衝突源自其內部社會問題,因此,1984年歐體與中美洲國家舉行了第一屆聖荷西會議,重申中美洲衝突應以和平途徑解決,並共同致力於戰後的復甦,雙方更於1985年簽署了「盧森堡協定」,開啟區域對區域的多邊合作,至今共歷經1993年的「薩爾瓦多協定」、2003年的「羅馬協定」,而 2010年5月所簽署的「聯繫協定」,除了確立雙方更多元的合作領域外,同時也將自由貿易協定納入,加深彼此的合作關係。
      此外,存在於雙方主體間的聯繫管道,除了官方層級的政治對話以外,尚包括許多半官方及非官方的聯繫管道,該等管道同時也是歐盟與中美洲關係的重要推手,對於歐盟與中美洲的互動而言,多元外交工具的運用、多面向的合作議題,以及多層級的聯繫管道,都是雙方得以延續合作關係的重要關鍵。
      
      Joseph S. Nye and Robert O. Keohane developed the concepts of complex interdependence in 1977. They believed there were three characteristics of the international system after WWII including “multiple channels among societies”, “absence of hierarchy among issues” and “minor role of military force in foreign affairs”. In the past, Realism considered that nation states were the main actors in international politics, military force was the best tool for diplomatic development and high politics such as military security leaded low politics including economic and social affairs. However, the concepts of Realism could hardly explain the international interactions after WWII. The interactions between EU and Central America have actually reflected the situation mentioned above.
    The Central American crisis in 1979 has leaded EU and Central America establishing their bilateral relations. In 1984 EC and Central America held the first San Jose Dialogue declaring Central American conflicts should be solved by peaceful approaches and the postwar recoveries would be accomplished by EC and Central America. Furthermore, EU and Central America have signed Luxembourg Agreement in 1985 which has started the multilateral cooperation between regions, El Salvador Agreement in 1993, Rome Agreement in 2003, and EU-Central America Association Agreement in 2010 which has included mutual cooperation in diverse fields and the free trade agreement (FTA) in order to deepen the bilateral relations.
    In addition, except official political dialogue, EU and Central America have also contacted through semi-official and non-official channels. These channels are very important on promoting relations between EU and Central America. For interactions between EU and Central America, using multiple diplomatic tools, cooperating on multiple issues and contacting through multiple channels are the key points to maintain the cooperative relations of two parties.
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