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    Title: 父權文化對新加坡政治發展影響之研究
    Other Titles: The implications of patrimonialsim on the political development of Singapore
    Authors: 張怡蔚;Chang, Yi-wei
    Contributors: 淡江大學東南亞研究所碩士班
    林若雩
    Keywords: 父權文化;威權統治;政治發展;政治轉型;民主化;Patriarchal Culture;Authoritarian rule;Political development;Political Transition;democratization
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:13:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 新加坡政治發展過程與一般民主國家不同之處,在於當第三波民主化浪潮於20世紀末襲捲全球時,其並未按民主化理論進行轉型,反而能在1959年李光耀取得執政後30多年的治理下,發展成為高度現代化的國家。但是結果雖然閃亮耀眼,然發展過程確是灰暗的,因為新加坡無論從內(經濟持續成長、教育普及和政治穩定)外(沒有外國強權的威脅)環境發展觀之,雖已具備成為「民主國家」的要件,可是在執政菁英-「人民行動黨」(People’s Action Party, PAP)的威權統治下,民主化理想的實現似乎遙不可及,因為他們不僅宰制了整個國家機關,並壓制境內所有反對勢力的挑戰。
    此情況雖然與李光耀在政治領導上施行威權統治有關,但美國學者理查‧斯奈德(Richard Snyder)卻認為決策者動機的形成源於以往的生活經歷、內在價值和不同的利益需求,或出自於領導者本身的驅動力,對於外在的表現往往反映在有意識的自覺或無意識的動機與衝動。經研究發現,受父權文化影響使李光耀在成長過程中因為紀律的印象和決策能力的鍛鍊,奠定其主政時期果斷決策的意識,塑造出強勢的領導風格;而海外求學期間則因廣泛觸及政治領域活動,獲得初步的政治歷練並型塑出反殖民思想,使李光耀在從政前即有了明確的政治抱負與信念,並在從政後經由前述自主性的強勢領導作風,持續強化其政治抱負和政治信念。
    受父權文化影響,新加坡在政治發展與轉型的過程中出現嚴重瑕疵,是其無法落實民主化的重要原因,除形成無開放競爭的政治環境、欠缺市場經濟的社會結構、建構出控制型社福制度,以及政治精英對民主信念認知的不足外,由於父權文化延續性貫穿到吳作棟、李顯龍主政期間的後李光耀時期,導致新一代領導人未接受民主選舉制度的洗禮,使「政治轉型」模式中的「二度轉型」階段迄今尚未出現,新加坡推動民主化的契機就在此不完整之情況下,被徹底抹殺了。雖然目前人民行動黨未如以往對社會進行太過於高調的干預,然無形的限制卻無所不在,因為人民行動黨的意志已通過議會和政府轉化為合理的國家意志和政府行為,後李光耀時期新加坡的父權文化其實已散落在個個角落。此就是擁有父權文化的國家民主政治較難發展的困境,亦是個人認為從事新加坡政治發展研究不可忽視父權文化對其影響,而欲藉本研究補強目前對新加坡政治發展為題之文獻多置重點於威權政治、民主加威權及精英主義等相關研究,而鮮少對新加坡政治發展受父權文化因素影響進行深入探討的原因。
    The political developing process of Singapore is quite different to other democratic countries. When the Third Wave of Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century spread the whole world, Singapore did not transform into a democratized country by democratization theory but became a highly-modernized one. Although it brought a brilliant result, the developing process was gloomy because PAP not only ruled the government agencies but also oppressed the counterforce in the nation.
    The research shows that under the effects of patriarchy culture, Lee Kuan Yew was instilled to have strict disciplines and the power of deciding policy during his growing period of time; as a result, he built his strong and dominant leading style when he was at the chief position. During the period of abroad studying, Lee experienced many political movements, which was his first practice about politics. This message told us that Lee already had the preliminary political belief before he really got involved into politics; moreover, he keeps this belief continually strengthened through his dominant leading style after he began his politics.
    Under the effects of patriarchy, there were some flaws shown during the process of political development and transformation in Singapore. For its continuity, it makes the current leader Lee Hsien Loong not to practice the democratic rules fully. Although presently PAP does not dominantly interfere in the affairs of society as before, the will of leading party has transformed into reasonable national will and governmental behaviors through both conference and government. In fact, the patriarchy culture and the effects it brought had been spread to everywhere in Singapore during the late period of Lee Kuan Yew’s ruling time, as a result, it is much more difficult to develop a democratic politic in such a deeply patriarchy-effected country.
    Appears in Collections:[東南亞研究所] 學位論文

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