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    Title: 新加坡擴張型都會區的跨國發展 : IMDP分析架構之檢証
    Other Titles: Transnational development of the Singapore extended metropolitan region : a test of the IMDP framework
    Authors: 于一新;Yu, I-hsin
    Contributors: 淡江大學東南亞研究所碩士班
    蔡青龍;Tsay, Ching-lung
    Keywords: 擴張型都會區;投資-移動-發展路徑;東協南部成長區;新加坡跨國發展;Extended Metropolitan Region;Investment-Migration-Development Path;ASEAN South Growth Area;Transnational Development of Singapore
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:13:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   1994年新加坡、馬來西亞、印尼三國簽署正式共同備忘錄,成立著名的「南成長三角」或稱「東協南部成長區」,Macleod和McGee (1996)認為此區域已足以被視為以新加坡為核心、而馬來西亞柔佛州和印尼廖內群島為擴張區的新加坡擴張型都會區。只是都會區「擴張」所指涉的實質內容在文獻中尚未定論,而且根據不同的研究目的,制定殊異的操作型定義。基於新加坡擴張型都會區的構成地區分屬三個不同發展階段的國家,此跨國性質應可引用Tsai和Tsay (2004)建構的「投資-移動-發展路徑」(IMDP)架構進行分析,該架構擷取資本與勞動力在東亞各國間試圖達到要素報酬均衡的經驗,說明境外直接投資、國際勞工移動與經濟發展階段之間的連結關係。本研究在方法上將跨國都會區的「擴張」定義為境外直接投資與國際勞工移動兩項生產要素在構成地區之間的移動,探討新加坡擴張型都會區的擴張過程。
      研究發現,基於構成地區所屬國家對於因應失去勞動剩餘優勢的策略偏好,以及這些策略之間的不完全替代性,導致新加坡擴張型都會區的擴張內容隨著發展進程產生規模與性質上的變遷。在新加坡-柔佛端的擴張,由於馬來西亞在發展上已經進入境外直接投資與國際勞工移動的存量皆為淨輸入的階段,柔佛對新加坡輸出勞工已經不如新加坡對柔佛的直接投資在擴張過程中的重要性,在新加坡-廖內群島這端的擴張之中,無論是廖內群島對新加坡的勞工輸出或是新加坡對廖內群島的直接投資,短期之內將持續保有相當程度的重要性。除此之外,從新加坡擴張型都會區的實際經驗,我們也發現包括:產業保護對象、天然資源稟賦、從事非貿易產品生產和服務供給的中小企業規模、構成地區之間的距離和產業結構相似性、中央與地方政府之間的政治關係在內的因素,都是影響各構成地區在IMDP架構之中的位置和形態的實際變項。
    Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia signed an official MOU symbolizing the establishment of South Growth Triangle or ASEAN South Growth Area in 1994. Macleod and McGee (1996) considered that the entire growth area which consists of the core area (Singapore) and the extended area (Johor and Riau Islands) is qualified to be named Singapore Extended Metropolitan Region. However, little consensus has been reached on the definition of “extended” activity. Researchers set up differential operational definitions according to various purpose. As the constituent areas of Singapore Extended Metropolitan Region belong to nation states at different stages of development respective. The Investment-Migration-Development Path (IMDP) developed by Tsai and Tsay (2004) appears to be a suitable framework for analyzing the extended activity of transnational metropolitan. The IMDP highlights the foreign direct investment (FDI), international labor migration (ILM) and economic development nexus observed in the East Asia, by focusing on the outcomes of market forces generated to equilibrate factor rewards across countries at different stages of development. The working definition of the extended activity of a metropolitan region adopted by this research is that the extended activities are FDI and ILM across constituent areas. This study tried to analyze the extended process of metropolitanization by utilizing the working definition mentioned before.
    To sum up, a bias of strategies toward labor shortage and incomplete substitution between them induced extended activities of metropolitan to have transformation in scope and quality. On the one hand, owing to the fact that Johor has reached the developmental stage the stocks of its net inward FDI and ILM were both positive. Labor migration from Johor to Singapore was no more than direct investment from Singapore to Johor in significance. On the other, both labor migration from Riau to Singapore and direct investment from Singapore to Riau continue to possess significant influence. According to the experience of Singapore Extended metropolitan Region, it was also found that other variables including protected industry, natural resource endowments, scale of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises engaged in non-tradable goods production and service supply, distance and similarity of industrial structure between constituent areas, political relation between central and local government, jointly determined the shape and position of the FDI and ILM curves in IMDP.
    Appears in Collections:[東南亞研究所] 學位論文

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