|Abstract: ||1973年智利發生軍事政變,皮諾契(Augusto Pinochet)上台,開始長 達17年的執政,並實行新自由主義模式,擴展至各項公共服務,包 括在教育方面,導致往後二十多年之間智利教育出現明顯的階級 化,公私立學校之間教學品質差距增大,漸漸引發社會不滿。|
2006年巴綺蕾(Michelle Bachelet)上台,通過增加大學入學考試費 用和削減學生通行證津貼的法案,引起全國性的學生運動-企鵝反 抗。智利中等學校學生希望藉此機會能促使政府將教育系統全面改 變,全面提昇智利教育的品質。
社會運動具備表達社會不同群體意見的特性,希望透過社會運動的 相關理論來分析社會運動出現的原因、發展的過程以及完成的程 度,藉此了解社會運動與社會之間的關聯,以及社會運動發生之後 社會所產生的變化。希望藉此歸納出形成社會運動的關鍵以及其得 以順利達成目標的主要因素。
A military coup took place in 1973 Chile. Augusto Pinochet came to power and started his leadership that lasted for as long as 17 years. His neo- liberal model was extended to various public services such as education. As a result, in the next 20 years, Chilean education became highly hierarchical, and the teaching quality gap between public and private schools increased. Gradually it led to social discontent.
In 2006, Michelle Bachelet came to power; she increased the university entrance exam fees and cut the subsidies of student transportation. This caused a nationwide student movement – The Rebellion of Penguins. Chilean secondary school students would like to take this opportunity to urge the Government to alter the education system, improving the quality of Chilean education.
Social movements have the characteristics of expressing the views of different groups in the society. The purpose of this essay is to analyze the cause, developing process, and success rate of social movements by using the theories related to social movements. By doing so, one can understand the relationship between society and social movements and can see the changes brought by social movements. Furthermore, one can find the key to the formation of social movements and the main factors of achieving one’s goals.