It has been 60 years since the civil war that divided China into two separate political system. Divided by the Taiwan Strait, R.O.C (Taiwan) and P.R.C (mainland China) set on the different side of the Strait, practicing different political rules. Both sides use every means necessary, be it politic, military, or diplomacy, in attempt to eliminate the opposing side, achieve the ultimate goal of unification, and become the only “China” that is nationally recognized.
During the entire P.R.C history, from the early stage of Mao Zedong’s plan the “liberate” Taiwan by military power, to later on, Mao’s new plan to achieve the same goal through peace talks, which served as the building block to his successor, Deng Xiaoping’s “One Nation, Two System” policy, to Jiang Zemin’s effort to reinforce the propagation of the same policy, which occurred in the same time period as China reclaims of Hong Kong and Macau, and used them as models of the “One Nation, Two System” policy, P.R.C’s political policy toward Taiwan includes never admitting Taiwan as a separate political body, and never give up the option of “military liberation” of Taiwan. On the surface, P.R.C pretends to value the opinion of Taiwanese people, showing good faith toward a peaceful unification, when in reality, they are steadfastly executing its original plan to use their vast economic and military power to force Taiwan into submission.
The fourth generation leader, Hu Jintao, becomes the new Chairman in 2002. The essence of his policy is essentially the same as his predecessors, although his political operation is modified due to the global diplomatic situation. Through the modifications bred his own, unique series of rules toward Taiwan diplomacy, where P.R.C’s stance becomes very flexible, and is able to play both hard and soft tactics. The stance has not changed even though Taiwan’s KMT came back into power and shows lots of good faith which built to unprecedented economic interaction from both sides of the Strait. Although Hu identified peaceful solutions as the new aim toward Taiwan diplomacy in the 17th CPC National Congress, it can be seen from his 「Hu’s Four Principles」、「May 17TH Announcement」、「Anti-Separation Law」 to his latest「Hu’s Six Principles」, that the “One China” principle has not been compromised. As the Taiwan citizens becomes more and more aware of their national identity, how to gain any breakthrough from two sides that held their political beliefs so firmly through 60 years becomes a point worthy of discussion.
This paper will research the diplomatic policies toward Taiwan from different P.R.C leaders during different timeline, observe the constants and changes that occurred due to the change of numerous factors. From the first generation leader, Chairman Mao, to the fourth, Chairman Hu, the evolution of their stances, attitudes, executions of the policies will be thoroughly discussed and analyzed.