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    Title: 「議行合一」與「權能區分」概念之比較分析 : 兼論中共全國人大之定位
    Other Titles: The comparative analysis between “the unity of legislative and executive” and “the separation of rights and powers”: regarding to the role of China's NPC
    Authors: 曹鈞皓;Tsao, Chun-hao
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    吳漢
    Keywords: 議行合一;權能區分;蘇維埃制度;國民大會;全國人大;the Unity of Legislative and Executive;the Separation of Rights and Powers;Soviet System;National Assembly;NPC
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:02:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 「議行合一」是基於馬列主義的國家理論的概念,是巴黎公社建立初期的政權組織原則,其原始涵義是「立法權與行政權的合一」,亦即代表機關同時也是行政機關,負責制定法律並執行法律,向來為社會主義國家「人民民主」政體所遵循,對俄國的蘇維埃制度和中國大陸的人民代表大會制度,在理論上有著直接或間接的影響,但人大制度是否為「議行合一」制,在大陸學界卻引起不少爭論。

    俄國的蘇維埃制度雖繼承了巴黎公社「議行合一」制,但蘇維埃制度所標榜的「議行合一」,其涵義已迥異於巴黎公社初期的制度實踐。由於中共於1931年建立的工農兵蘇維埃代表大會是對蘇維埃制度的模仿,而人大制度又是承襲1931年的工農兵蘇維埃代表大會而來,故本文認為人大制度屬於蘇維埃式的「議行合一」制。

    孫中山晚年提出「權能區分」理論,將政治權力分為「政權」和「治權」;「政權」是人民管理國家事務的權力,「治權」是政府治理國家的權力,人民以「政權」管理政府的「治權」。「權能區分」體現在制度上,就是國民大會與「五權分立」制度,與蘇維埃式的「議行合一」制呈現了相同的權力結構。由於俄國共產革命的成功經驗為孫中山所欽羨,俄國的政治制度遂成為孫中山學習的範本,故「權能區分」可能是孫中山模仿蘇維埃制度並融合自己「五權分立」之構想而產生的理論。

    中共堅持人大制度是其根本的政治制度,反對三權分立及照搬西方政治制度,要建立「中國特色的民主政治」;而「權能區分」並非照搬西方三權分立的政治制度,可謂是孫中山創建的「中國式民主」模型。既堅持全國人大「最高國家權力機關」的地位,強化全國人大對其他國家機關的監督職能,又強調組織的功能分化與專業化,避免權力過於集中,是人大制度的發展方向。孫中山基於「權能區分」所構想的國民大會制度,在權力結構上與三權分立迥異,卻與人大制度實行的蘇維埃式「議行合一」制相同;且「權能區分」比「議行合一」更符合人大制度組織功能分化與專業化的發展要求。若以「權能區分」作為人大制度的組織原則,不但不會改變人大制度的權力結構,且有利於人大制度發展的完善。
    The idea of “Unity of Legislative and Executive” is based on the concept of Marxism–Leninism state theory and is the initial principle of the organization of Paris Commune. Its original meaning is the idea of “the Unity of the power of Legislative and Executive”, which means that Legislative is also served as Executive and is in charge of the making and execution of law. It’s often adopted by the “People’s Democracy” form of regimes in socialism nations and has, directly or indirectly, the influence on both of Russia’s Soviet System and China’s NPC System, However, whether NPC System should be classified as one type of “Unity of Legislative and Executive” is still in dispute.

    Although Russia’s Soviet System succeed to “Unity of Legislative and Executive” of Paris Commune, its meaning is totally different from the initial practice of Paris Commune. For the Soviet System of the Chinese Soviet Republic, which established by CCP in 1931, is the imitation of Russia’s Soviet System, and NPC System is in succession to the Soviet of the Chinese Soviet Republic, we classified NPC System as one type of Soviet System of “Unity of Legislative and Executive.”

    Doctor Sun, Yat-sen established the idea of “Separation of Rights and Powers” in his late years, which separates political power as “People’s Rights” and “Government’s Powers”. “People’s Rights” means people’s rights of state management, “Government’s Powers” means government’s powers of govern. People rule “Governmental Powers” by “People’s Rights”. The idea of “Separation of Rights and Powers” forms the National Assembly and “Separation of Five-powers” System, which presents the same power structure with Soviet System of the Unity of Legislative and Executive. Due to Sun’s admiration of success of communist revolution in Russia, he takes Russia’s system as the ideal model. Hence, The idea of “Separation of Rights and Powers” is probably born with Russia’s Soviet and Sun’s thought of Separation of Five-powers.

    CCP firmly adopts NPC as its basic political system, and opposes the idea of “Separation of Three-powers” as well as entire absorbing western political system. It pursues a Chinese Democracy. The idea of “Separation of Rights and Powers”, which doesn’t totally absorb the idea of western political system of “Separation of Three-powers”, is the model of Chinese Democracy established by Doctor Sun, Yat- sen. The NPC System’s direction of development is to take the NPC as the highest authority, strengthen the supervision of NPC toward other departments, stress the division of function and profession in organizations, and prevents from power centralization. Doctor Sun, Yat-sen’s National Assembly System, which based on the idea of “Separation of Rights and Powers”, differs from the power structure of the idea of “Separation of Three-powers”, but is the same with Soviet System and NPC System, which characterized by “Unity of Legislative and Executive”. Moreover, the idea of “Separation of Rights and Powers” is more intensive to the degree of the division of function and profession than the idea of “Unity of Legislative and Executive”. If we adopt the idea of “Separation of Rights and Powers” as the principle of organizing NPC System, it wouldn’t only affect the structure of power of NPC System, but also would benefit the NPC System’s development instead.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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