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    Title: 中共政治繼承之制度化研究 : 從權力鬥爭到和平轉移
    Other Titles: A study of institutionalization of China's political succession : from a power struggle to a peaceful transfer
    Authors: 劉為玉;Liu, Wei-yu
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    劉勝驥;Liu, Sun-chi
    Keywords: 中共;政治繼承;權力轉移;制度化;CCP;political succession;Power transition;Institutionalization
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:02:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中共從建國直至1980年代的政治史,幾乎就是一部紛擾混亂的權力鬥爭史。共黨國家由於權力結構的不穩定性,不像民主國家有一套法律明定的政治繼承規則,因此在政權交替轉移的過程中,往往伴隨著非和平方式,甚至是暴力流血的奪權鬥爭,造成政局和國家社會的動盪不安,因此中共高層的政治繼承模式和形式制度演變,一直是中外研究中共政治的學者關注的議題。

    直到2002年十六大時江澤民順利將政權移交給胡錦濤,中共政治史上才首次出現第一位「全身而退」的指定接班人。江並在2004年的十六屆四中全會上全退,將中央軍委主席職務交予胡錦濤,胡正式集黨政軍大權於一身,江澤民也卸下所有相關職位,從此退出領導核心的政治舞台,超越以往中共領導人「鞠躬盡瘁,死而後已」的老人政治傳統,中共政權至此可說是完成了歷史性的第一次全面及和平的轉移。

    是什麼樣的因素促使中共政治檯面上的權力鬥爭趨於和緩,並進而讓中共高層權力轉移的模式,從持續半世紀的暴力式奪權衝突,逐步演變為現在和平有序的梯隊接班?影響中共各時期高層領導人政治繼承過程的因素為何?中共的權力繼承又是否真的已朝向制度化發展?本文欲從歷史觀點及相關的理論中,探討中共政治繼承模式的轉變,以及影響中共政治繼承的各種因素,並分析未來可能的發展和變數。

    本論文章節分為毛澤東時期非制度化的暴力式奪權鬥爭時期,與鄧後逐漸邁入制度化的政治繼承兩個階段,以各別時期高層政治繼承的模式和特色,進行研究假設及驗證,尋找中共政治繼承的制度化發展軌跡。

    研究結果發現制度化時期政治繼承特色為制度性規範作用的發揮及依循慣例;領導人背景及權力核心基礎的不同,造成派系和強人政治的弱化;循序漸進式的政治繼承和集體領導的強化,以及鬥爭程度的減低。但在制度化的進程中仍有許多問題,例如高層沒有明確任期限制、接班人何時與如何選出及培養、總書記不堪重任及無法視事時依何程序去職或遞補等均未有相關明確法規,尚有待未來進一步完善與補足,方能使中共政治繼承朝制度化深化的方向穩定落實發展。
    From the founding of Communist China''s political history until the 1980s, almost a chaotic power struggle in the history of troubles. Communist countries, because of the instability of the power structure, unlike the democratic state has a law stipulates that the rules of political succession, and therefore the process of transition of power transfer is often accompanied by non-peaceful means, even violence and bloody struggles for power, causing political and national social unrest, the Chinese Communist high-level political system of inheritance patterns and the evolution of the form has been a study of Chinese Communist Chinese and foreign scholars are concerned about political issues.

    Until 2002, when Jiang Zemin smoothly handing over power to Hu Jintao on 16th Party Congress, China''s political history was the first time in the first retirement security designated successor. Later ,Jiang was handed over the presidency of the Central Military Commission to Hu Jintao in the Fourth Plenary Session of the 16th National Congress on April 2004 , Hu was a formal set of military and political power, Jiang Zemin has also unloaded all the relevant posts, the core of leadership to withdraw from the political arena , beyond the past, Chinese leaders "do dying," the old political tradition, the communist regime thus can be said to have completed a historic first comprehensive and peaceful transfer.

    What kind of factors that make the CCP''s political power struggle in the counter tends to moderate, and thus allow the Communists to high-level model of the transfer of power from the continuing violence in half a century-style struggle for power, conflict, and gradually evolved into the echelon is now peaceful and orderly succession? What is the impact of Chinese Communist leaders during the political succession process? CCP''s power and whether it has really made the succession towards the institutionalization of development? For this article from a historical point of view and the related theory, to explore the changing pattern of China''s political succession, and the impact of China''s political succession of the various factors and analysis of possible future developments and variables.

    This paper is divided into sections of non-institutionalized during the Mao Zedong-style struggle for power during the violence, and the gradual institutionalization of the post-Deng succession of two stages of the political order to the respective period of high-level political inheritance patterns and characteristics of research assumptions and verification, look for China''s political the institutionalization of the succession process of development.

    The results showed that the institutionalization of political succession is characterized by a period of institutional norms play and follow practices; leaders of the background and the core of power based on a different, resulting in the weakening of political factions and strongmen; gradual political succession and the collective leadership to strengthen, as well as the struggle to reduce the level. However, in the process of institutionalization there are still many problems, such as high-level no explicit term limits, when and how his successor be elected and the culture, the general secretary shall serve when he can not bear the heavy responsibility and resigned, or fill vacancies in accordance with what program and so no clear laws and regulations, but also have to wait for the future to further improve and complement, than the deepening of China''s political system in the direction of the succession could be towards stability and development.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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