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    Title: 中共改革開放後的中央與地方權力關係
    Other Titles: The authority distribution between the central and the local since PRC's reform and openess
    Authors: 許乃倫;Hsu, Nai-lun
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    趙春山;Chao, Chun-shan
    Keywords: 改革與開放;鄧小平;中央;地方;reform and openess;Deng XiaoPing;central;local
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:01:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中國大陸自從一九七八年十一屆三中全會之後,鄧小平展開了經濟改革與對外開放等以經濟發展為重的發展路線,中共決定把經濟建設做為主要工作重點,並展開一連串包括家庭承包制的農村改革、國有企業改革、財政分灶吃飯制以及設立經濟特區與開放沿海城市等經濟制度改革,除了藉以改善經濟困境與成長停滯的問題以外,也促使中央政府對地方政府的放權行為,包括黨政分開、政企分離以及行政權下放地方政府,創造了持續解決微觀經營機制的有利條件。一改過去毛澤東著重在意識形態與政治控制兩方面的作風,同時也確立了權力下放原則,中共中央與地方關係依循著「放權讓利」的路線進行,無論是在政治經濟方面,都有很大的創新與變革。
    然而在中共經濟改革與對外開放的過程中,其主要政策是以市場經濟調節機能,來取代僵化的計畫經濟體制,隨著市場機能的日益重視與利用,中共的政經體制間也產生的不同程度的互動與制約。由於中共提出市場經濟概念並將其融入意識形態當中,使得中央對地方行政權力的下放成為勢在必行,然而「放權讓利」對社會主義國家產生哪些影響,也是另一個值得注意的地方。隨著中共經濟體制改革的進行,鄧小平規定政治體系改革目標為保持黨和國家的活力,克服官僚主義,並調動基層和工人、農民、知識分子的積極性,在此目標之下,中央和地方關係在保證政令統一的前提下,逐步劃清中央和地方的職責。因此,本研究想要針對中共在改革開放後,其中央對地方的權力下放、權力下放的原因與影響,進行探討與整理,以期對中國大陸內部權力變化的狀況,有更深入的了解。
    After the Third Plenary Session in 1978,Deng Xiaoping launched economic reformation and opened up domestic market to foreign investment which emphasize on economic development. Chinese Communists aimed at economic construction, such as reformation for the household contract system of rural, state enterprise, financial system, establishment of special economic zones of coastal cities, etc. Except improving the economic difficulties,Deng prompted the decentralization including the separation of party and government, divided government-enterprise and decentralization to local government. He created favorable conditions for sustainable solutions to the micro-management mechanism, and changed the grasp of both ideology and politics emphasized by Mao. At the same time, “decentralization” was followed by CPC Central Committee and local government; there were innovations and changes in economy and politics.
    However, in the process of the economic reformation, the main policy was based on the function of the market instead of the rigid planned economy. With the growth of market mechanism, the political and economic system interacted and constrained with each other. As the CPC integrated market into the ideology which caused decentralization, but the impact to the socialist country can’t be ignored. During the economic reformation, Deng required to maintain the vitality of party and country in political reformation, overcame the bureaucracy and mobilized workers, farmers, intellectuals. Under this policy, the power and right of central and local government gradually were divided. Therefore, this research discussed the reason and effects of decentralization after economic reformation in order to understand the changes to China authority.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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