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    Title: 行銷中國 : 上海消費者對臺灣品牌印象之研究
    Other Titles: Brand marketing in China : the imagines of consumers toward Taiwan brand in Shanghai
    Authors: 朱少君;Chu, Shao-chun
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    陳建甫
    Keywords: 品牌形象;消費者行為;來源國形象;國家民族主義;國家形象;旅遊經驗;Brand Image;Consumer Behavior;image of country of origin;nationalism;National Image
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-23 15:01:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 自全球金融風暴後,歐美市場萎靡不振,世界各國莫不把眼光投射到中國內需市場,因此皆準備抓住這個機會拓展中國大陸內需市場。以中小企業居多的台灣,如果也要去進軍中國內需市場,最重要的就是了解中國消費者對「台灣品牌」的認知了,因為消費者在產品各方面屬性都相同的情況下,對於不同來源國的產品評價會有差異,顯示產品來源國對消費者的影響;因此當需要「台灣」這塊品牌的加持時,「台灣」這塊招牌,到底是加持了什麼?對什麼樣的產品有正面效應?

    由於上海是中國經濟文化的代表,人均GDP已超過全國水平約3倍,全球五百大企業幾乎都在這裡設下亞洲區總部。上海人對舶來品的接受度最高,舶來品在中國試水溫的第一個點也都喜歡挑在上海,因此本研究以上海人為例,探討上海人對台灣品牌印象的認知、以及對台灣產品的購買意願。

    本研究採焦點團體訪談與深入訪談方式進行,對象的基本條件為居住上海超過十年、在上海工作,且家庭月收入超過一萬元、個人月收入超過人民幣3000元、有出國經驗者,為能分辨並探討差異,再將挑選訪談對象分為「沒有與台灣人接觸過、亦沒到過台灣」、「常與台灣人接觸、但沒到過台灣」及「常與台灣人接觸並到過台灣多趟」三種,分別進行訪談;焦點團體採五~六人一組,各進行一場焦點團體訪談,深入訪談二人,各進行一場訪談。

    研究發現的八個面向:
    一、 來源國形象:第一組與第二組認為「電腦科技先進、政治獨特、媒體發達、說話開放」,因有無與台灣人交流過,在深淺度上有著很大的不同,但是方向上差別不大。對台灣熟悉的官員(第三組),則對台灣的來源國形象為「產品工藝進步、會做生意」。
    二、 熟識台灣人後,對台政治地位認知產生差距:沒有台灣人朋友的第一組上海人,僅從大陸媒體上認識台灣,因此在政治上認為台灣和香港一樣,是中國的一部份,但有台灣人朋友的第二組上海人,在這一點的認知上就不那麼絕對了,因為他們可以理解到台灣人與大陸人有很多不同的地方,在思想上的確不像同一個國家的人。
    三、 台灣來源國形象對台灣的產品品牌影響:第一組知道的台灣品牌很少,大都集中在吃的品牌,第二組知道的台灣品牌相對多了些,除了吃的,也知道電腦類的,但幾個在台灣是耳熟能詳的知名品牌,上海人雖知道該品牌,但不知道是台灣品牌。第三組對台灣產品品牌很清楚,但認為在中國,台灣產品無明確的統一形象。
    四、 國家民族主義對上海人消費行為的影響:購買日、韓產品時,部分人還是會受到較大的影響,而當中國產品不只做大能做強時,所有人都先支持中國產品;但這個中國產品中,包括台灣產品,也就是說,國家民族主義對台灣產品是正向力量,而不是與來源國形象的拉距力量
    五、 品牌來源國形象v.s製造地形象:上海人知道的許多台灣品牌其實在台灣並沒有該品牌,或是該品牌百分之百是中國製,只有老闆是台灣人,但上海人還是覺得這樣的品牌也算台灣品牌,他們區分的方式寬鬆到只要老闆是台灣人,該品牌就算台灣品牌,因為老闆是台灣人就能代表這品牌是台灣思維、台灣規格、台灣技術或台灣管理。
    六、 購買意願:在科技與飲食類的產品上,上海人的購買意願比較順序都是台灣→日本→韓國,但其它類別則沒有辦法評斷,因為不知道其它產品台灣有何優勢與知名品牌。
    七、 台灣旅遊經驗:沒來過台灣的上海人,對台灣旅遊是充滿期待的,因為神秘;但來過的人通常有些失望,因為同為東方人的中國旅客對東方很熟悉,中國的大山大水、少數民族比台灣更多。行銷台灣的美,該讓來旅遊的大陸人感受什麼?那在他們眼中什麼才是台灣特色?什麼才是可以產生共鳴的歷史連結?目前的台灣之旅並沒從這個方向思考選擇。
    八、 「台灣」的品牌聯想:這部分是零碎的、不完整的,台灣需要中國內需市場,但行銷到中國這個廣大的市場中,台灣需要清楚的品牌形象認同,台灣文化需要清楚的定位與重塑。「管理品質、科技工藝、細緻服務、創意創新」四方面才是台灣行銷中國的優勢。

    在情感上,台灣是上海人再熟悉不過的地方,但實際上,台灣還是神祕的、陌生的;上海人對台灣的看法是正面與和善的,覺得台灣是進步的,但是因為台灣從沒正視過中國市場,因此並未到那塊土地上公開的、整體的、全面的行銷自己,所以多數的上海人並不真的認識台灣。

    本研究建議台灣當局應該在中國推出整體性的形象廣告,並整合台灣的世界知名品牌,建立「精緻、先進」的優秀形象,讓中國大陸人民有明確的聯想,而在推動台灣觀光部分,也要跳脫對美日歐的宣傳方式(原住民、太魯閣、水果等),建立科技島、創新島、人文島與東方宗教島的新欣賞角度。也建議想去中國市場闖天下的廠商,可以運用同是中國人的行銷角度,牽引中國人的民族情結,台灣是中華民族中最優秀的代表!

    在此也期許所有在中國的台灣人,從本研究發現你們是對岸認識台灣的重要媒介,你的一舉一動、你的生意道德,都代表著台灣文化的影響,不可不謹慎以對!
    If Taiwan, an economy consisting of mostly of small- and medium enterprises, wishes to play a part in China’s domestic demand market, the most important strategy is to understand how the “Taiwan” brand is recognized by Chinese consumers. Many products from different countries have identical characteristics, yet consumers tend to place different values on products based on their countries of origin. This indicates that consumer behavior is affected by the product’s country of origin. Therefore, when it is necessary to enhance the brand of “Taiwan”, what exactly are we enhancing it with? And what kinds of products will be affected favorably?

    Being the representative city of China’s economic and cultural development, Shanghai’s per capita GDP has exceeded the national average by approximately three-fold. Almost all of the world’s 500 largest corporations have established their Asia-Pacific headquarters here. Compared with the rest of the country, Shanghai’s residents have the largest appetite for imported goods. Foreign companies testing how well their products are received in the Chinese market prefer to market them first in Shanghai. This study researches the awareness and impression of the “Taiwan” brand among Shanghai residents, as well as their willingness to purchase Taiwan products.

    In this study, interviews of focus groups and other in-depth interviews have been employed. The basic criteria in selecting interviewees include the following: length of residency in Shanghai being at least 10 years, place of work being in Shanghai, monthly family income exceeding CNY 10,000, monthly personal income in excess of CNY 3,000, and having traveled outside of China. To identify and explore the differences, the selected interviewees were further divided into three groups: those “having had no contact with Taiwanese and who have never been to Taiwan,” those “having had frequent contact with Taiwanese but who have never been to Taiwan” and those “having had frequent contact with Taiwanese and who have visited Taiwan multiple times.” The interviews were conducted with 5 to 6 members in each group.

    Eight different aspects are explored in this study:
    1. With respect to the image of the country of origin, whether the interviewees have had contact with Taiwanese has an impact on the results, although there are no significant differences in the general trends.
    2. After having become familiar with people from Taiwan, a gap in the awareness of the political status of Taiwan becomes apparent.
    3. The effects of Taiwan’s image as a country of origin on Taiwanese brands are mainly reflected in the food and computer categories. In China, Taiwanese products do not have a clear, uniform image.
    4. Consumer behavior among certain Shanghai residents is still influenced by nationalistic sentiments. When Chinese products become widely available and with improved quality, people will turn to support their own country. The scope of Chinese products, however, does include those from Taiwan. In other words, nationalism is a positive force for Taiwanese products rather than a factor in weakening its image as a country of origin.
    5. Image of the brand’s country of origin vs. manufacturing location: The way Shanghainese consumers distinguish the country of origin of a brand is simply by the identity of the company’s owner or proprietor. If he or she is Taiwanese, the brand is considered from Taiwan, because a Taiwanese boss represents a mode of thinking, specifications, technology or management philosophy that is uniquely Taiwanese.
    6. Regarding the willingness to purchase Taiwanese products, the following is the order of preference among Shanghainese consumers in the technology and food product categories: Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea. For other categories, however, the preferences cannot be ascertained since the interviewees are unaware of any other product categories in which Taiwan has an advantage, or of any well-known Taiwanese brands.
    7. Those who have never been to Taiwan are found to be eagerly looking forward to visiting the island due to the perceived mystery factors. However, those who have visited Taiwan generally express a certain degree of disappointment because Taiwan’s tourist attractions are still being operated in a traditional manner, and it is difficult to attract Chinese tourists, who have a cultural background similar to those of the island’s residents.
    8. On the whole, how Shanghai residents associate a brand to the “Taiwan” image has yet to be fully explained. “Management quality, technological craftsmanship, meticulous service, creativity and innovation” are the four pillars for successful marketing in China by Taiwanese brands.

    Emotionally, Taiwan is a concept quite familiar to the people of Shanghai, and yet, in fact, the island remains mysterious and strange. In general, the view of Shanghai residents with respect to Taiwan is positive and amiable, and they regard Taiwan as a progressive society. However, due to the fact that Taiwan has never regarded China as one of its principle markets, the island has yet to carry out an open, comprehensive and all-encompassing marketing campaign on the mainland. As a result, most Shanghai residents do not have a genuine understanding of Taiwan.

    This study recommends that the Taiwan government launch a comprehensive advertising campaign to promote Taiwan’s image, with an effort to incorporate Taiwan’s world-famous brands to create a superior image that is “sophisticated and advanced”, so that Chinese consumers will be able to make a clear association of quality products with the island. As for the promotion of Taiwan’s tourism industry, it is also necessary to go beyond the approach which targets only tourists from North America, Japan and Europe (such as aboriginal culture, Taroko Gorge and fruits). Instead, a fresh new image of technology, innovation, culture and Eastern religions need to be established for the island. It is also recommended that corporations planning to engage the Chinese market may employ a marketing angle that caters to the nationalistic sentiments of Chinese consumers and can work to the advantage of Taiwan: proclaiming Taiwan to be the most outstanding representative of the Chinese people!
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