|摘要: ||Lakoff & Gibbs (1990, 1994)認為許多成語是可透過背後的隱喻和借喻概念來引發概念動機的；而這些動機，根據Lakoff & Johnson(1980)是透過我們的具體經驗而產生的。因此，藉由這些論述，為此研究引導出更能有效幫助第二語言學習者成語理解的教學方法。|
此研究目標是要探討借用身體部位表達情慾之英語成語以母語翻譯及情境提示(大部分台灣的第二語言學習者學習成語的方式)和以認知概念教學方式的有效性。根據Hu & Fong (2006)的研究結果顯示，透過成語隱喻概念和圖像基模學習，的確幫助學習者學習第二外語的成語理解，但是因為兩種語言文化上的差異，導致的錯誤母語翻譯結果。學習者容易理解一目了然的成語，例如，giving someone the cold shoulder (對某人冷淡)；但是having cold feet (臨陣脫逃)在教學前教學後都無法立刻了解其成語意思。我們假設這樣的理解困難可能是因為缺少有系統的教學解釋，因為前項研究只強調成語隱喻概念及圖像基模，因此，在本研究三個不同的教學方法當中，其中一組認知概念教學組，除了提供成語隱含的隱喻及借喻概念之外，同時提供相關的情緒分類。我們將從不同的英語字典及英語語料庫 (BNC)選出三十個情緒相關的成語，例如，生氣、快樂、害怕、驚訝、及難過等情緒；另外，增加十個具有文化差異且其意思和信仰、價值觀相關的成語成為此研究的控制項目。
Lakoff and Gibbs (1990, 1994) argued that most idiomatic expressions are conceptually motivated by the underlying metaphors and metonymies, which, according to Lakoff and Johnson (1980), derived from our embodied experiences. This insight has led to an alternative pedagogy proposed in this study to enhance idiom comprehension of EFL learners.
This study aims to investigate the efficacy of a cognitive instruction involving explicating the underlying conceptual metaphors and metonymies (CM) of body-part idioms of emotions by comparing it with a more traditional approach that employs L1 translation with context cues, According to the result of a previous study (Hu & Fong, 2006), raising the awareness of CMs and ICs underlying idioms in the target language did facilitate learning; however, negative L1 transfer deriving from differences in cultural specific metonymies and image schemas would occur to interfere with comprehension. Some seemingly easy, i.e., transparent idioms such as giving someone the cold shoulder or having cold feet were not immediately understood both before and after teaching. Presumably, such difficulty might have been due to a lack of systematic explanation as the study only highlighted the underlying CMs and ICs rather than contrasting them systematically with proper categorizations. Thus, in this current study, three groups of subjects were recruited with two groups instructed with CM-guided cognitive instruction (CIM1, CIM2), and one group as the control group (TCM). Above all, one of the CM-guided groups (CIM2) had a further treatment of grouping emotions into different categorizations. A pool of 30 idioms related to emotions, such as anger, joy, fear, surprise, and sadness as well as body parts such as heart, hand, feet, mouth, head were selected from dictionaries and BNC (British National Corpus) for treatment.. 10
The results of this study suggest that subjects of the three groups, L1 translation with context cues (TCM), CIM1, and CIM2 with emotion categorizations, all improved significantly after respective treatment. However, from idiom long-term retention point of view, subjects of CIM2 performed slightly better, though not significantly, than the other two groups. This result indicates that any kinds of grouping lead to better than no grouping at all, and for the type of idioms used in the experiment, all tested approaches proved to be effective. For the 10 more cultural specific idioms, subjects of all three groups demonstrated an overall difficulty in learning, suggesting that cultural specific schemas are indeed harder to learn.
The above findings indicate that CM-guided instructions for more universal or cultural-shared body-part idioms of emotions are equally helpful to L2 learners as a more traditional approach. This may have more to do with the transparent, bodily-motivated idiom type. Some limitations and suggestions were also discussed for future research.