兒童為年輕之成人。而身為人，兒童有其一定之人權，不是雙親之所有物。希拉蕊‧克林頓於一九七三年出版之著書中提及，兒童權利不單僅是一個口號。因此身為獨立之個體，兒童有積極之權利，兒童、青少年與成年人相同皆具有基本人權，必須承認其特殊之需要。爾後一九二四年國際聯盟第五次總會表決通過日內瓦宣言、一九四八年十二月十日決議通過世界人權宣言，兩宣言當中皆規定兒童應得以妥善照顧並以其最大利益（the best interest of the child）為考量。聯合國世界人權宣言第二十五條第二項揭示「母親及兒童應受特別照顧及協助。所有兒童無論婚生與非婚生，均應享受同等社會保護」。 隨著時代演變，《聯合國憲章》規定之基本人權亦於《公民與政治權利國際公約》中具體條文化。諸多人權公約中皆於條文中皆規定特別關注家庭及兒童，當中亦包括《公民與政治權利國際公約》第24條規定：「保護兒童之平等原則和出生時立即登記名字以取得國籍之權利」。 本論文係以一九六六年於聯合國大會通過之《公民與政治權利國際公約》之第二十四條「兒童權利」保障為研究中心，並透過條文學說之解釋導引出兒童人權之相關議題。同時探討日本加入《公民與政治權利國際公約》後對於日本國憲法等相關國內法之作用。本論文之最終目的係透過日本之借鏡，係求台灣人權意識之提升及強化兒童人權之教育。 Children are young human beings. Some children are very young human beings. As human beings children evidently have a certain human rights. A child is a person, not a person that parents had absolute interest and possession of the child. A 1973 publication by Hillary Clinton stated that children''s rights were not only a slogan in need of a definition. Consequently, as a human that child have positive rights so we can say Children and young people have the same basic general human rights as adults and also specific rights that recognized their special needs. As times goes by, the rights provided for the general principles in the “Universal Declaration of Human Right” to change into an international protection of human rights protection in the “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”. Many Declarations of the Human Rights of both the ICCPR call attention to the special needs of families and children. These include Article 24 of the ICCPR (calling for the protection of Non-discrimination in children and registration at birth of their name and nationality), and then thesis is according to Article 24 of “The right of Child” adopted in the United Nations in 1966, and based on the provisions of theories to interpret guides to the Rights of child issues. And in this paper focusing on the implementation of the Domestic law in Japan. The final purpose of this thesis corresponds to the Human rights standard up. and admitted of The Rights of Child for the consideration improvement of the Taiwanese rights.