日本的生育率低於人口替代率，死亡率也急速驟降，對此現象，一般所憂慮的是未來的勞動力將無法支撐迅速成長的老人人口。對日本而言，在短期之內迅速增加勞動力規模的最佳方式為提高女性的勞動力參與率，但是職業性別隔離是不利於女性進入勞動市場的因素之一。 職業性別隔離普遍存在於世界各國，即使是先進國家也是如此，其共同的特徵為：女性任職於管理職的情形較少、女性較容易被集中在某些職業，這些職業往往是「女性型」的職業，同時這些職業的薪資較低。 本論文將結合人力資本論、雙元勞動市場論與統計上的歧視，對職業性別隔離的存在及發生原因加以闡明，在文章中，將探討日本特有的獨特人事管理制度─「職掌別人事制度」。 在另一方面，儘管日本的《男女雇用機會均等法》自1986年來已施行24年，事實上日本的女性勞動依舊存在許多問題。因為職掌別人事制度造成的男女之間的薪資差異，還有造成水平及垂直的職業性別隔離。另一問題為女性集中在非正規雇用的比例過高，而非正規雇用的薪資往往又低於正規雇用之工作。 因此在本論文中，除了探討何謂職業性別隔離，也將針對日本的特殊情形加以探討。 In Japan, fertility rates have been below the level that leads to replacement of one generation by the next. In the same time, mortality rates have also fallen sharply. A common concern is that a future labor force may not be able to support the rapidly growing elderly population. For Japan, the most effective way to deal with the fall in labor supply in the short term is to increase the labor force participation rates of Japanese women. But the occupational segregation by gender is a factor that obstructs women into the labor market. Gender inequality in the labor market still persists even in advanced industrial societies. Women are generally less likely to hold positions of responsibility; women tend to be segregated into a narrower range of occupations; and women are paid less. Women are always segregated into “female job.” This study, use theories of human capital, dual labor market theory and statistical discrimination to explain why occupational segregation by gender persisted. It also discussed the “two-track” administration system which the special employment management system in Japan. On the other hand, the Equal Employment Opportunity Law has applied for 24 years since 1986. The fact is that existing wage gap between women and men, stemming largely from the difference in type of work, horizontal and vertical employment segregation as implied by the “two-track” administration system. A high percentage of women in part-time work whose salaries are lower than those working in a regular situation. This article has explained what occupational segregation by gender is in the special case of Japan.