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    Title: 少數者權利之研究-以自由權公約及日、臺憲法體制為核心-
    Other Titles: Research on rights of minority - focus on the international covenant on civil and political rights and the constitutional system of Japan and Taiwan
    Authors: 吳志翔;Wu, Chih-hsiang
    Contributors: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班
    胡慶山
    Keywords: 國際人權;少數者權利;自由權公約第二十七條;一般意見書;人權委員會;愛努族;台灣新憲;International Human Rights;Rights of Minority;Article 27 of the ICCPR;General Comments;Human Rights Committee;Ainu People;Constitution of Taiwan;国際人権;マイノリティの権利;自由権規約二十七条;一般意見;人権委員会;アイヌ族;台湾憲法
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2010-09-24
    Abstract: 國際人權中的少數者一詞,係指一國的國內社會中所存在的種族、語言,或是宗教性質之少數團體。然而,人權保障所提及的「少數者」不僅止於數量比較的結果,更必須具備受歧視、受壓迫之要素。因此,在人權普遍化、人人生而平等的今日,少數者仍然是人權保障的議題之一。
    自由權公約第二十七條為現今國際人權中唯一直接保障少數者權利之規定。根據人權委員會之一般意見書的解釋,少數者權利除宗教、語言、文化等相關權利之外,更與土地資源利用權有所聯繫。此外,國家亦有必要採取措施積極保障少數者權利。
    少數者因為其性質之關係,難以直接在憲法中具體保障其權利;日本國憲法並不存在少數者權利,但是藉由憲法體制與國際人權連結,少數者權利因而獲得保障。以愛努族為例,在自由權公約第二十七條的影響之下,近年來日本政府除承認愛努族為少數者之外,日本法院與國會更進一步承認愛努族身為先住民之事實。
    台灣方面,與日本國憲法相同,中華民國憲法亦不存在直接保障少數者權利之規定。然而,在中華民國憲法體制之下,台灣難以加入自由權公約;即使單方面遵守自由權公約之規定,國際人權國內法化之困難以及無法接受國際機構之監察等缺失,皆使保障內容難以達成實效。因此,台灣有必要制定新憲,確立國家地位與憲法之內容,藉由憲法體制連結自由權公約。此為最直接且有效保障少數者權利之方式。
    In the international human rights, minority means ethnic, religious or linguistic groups in the state. However, not just the number, minority should contain an element of the oppressed or discriminated. Accordingly, in the present society to advocate the principle of equality and universality of human rights, rights of minority is still one issue of human rights.
    Currently,in the international human rights treaties, Article 27 of the ICCPR is the ony one term that directly guarantees the rights of minority. According to general comments of Human Rights Committee,although the rights protected under article 27 are individual rights, the depend in turn on the ability of the minority group to maintain its culture, language or religion.At the same time, one or other aspect of the rights of individuals protected under that article - for example, to enjoy a particular culture - may consist in a way of life which is closely associated with territory and use of its resources.Accordingly, positive measures by States may also be necessary to protect the identity of a minority and the rights of its members to enjoy and develop the culture and language and to practice their religion, in community with the other members of the group.
    The Constitution is difficult to directly guarantee the rights of minority. Japan joins ICCPR to guarantee the rights of minority. For example, as the effcet of Article 27, the Japanese government formally recognised the Ainu as ethnic minority groups and an indigenous group.
    In the Constitution of the Republic of China,it is impossible for Taiwan to formally ratify the ICCPR. Even if Taiwan unilaterally obey the ICCPR,but the difficult for the international human hights into domestic law that abate effective of the ICCPR.Therefore it is necessary to enact a new constitution that can confirm the statehood of Taiwan,so Taiwan can formally joins the ICCPR.In order to guarantee the rights of minority, it is the most effective way.
    Appears in Collections:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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