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    題名: 1990年代之後日本對中國投資與貿易結構變化之研究
    其他題名: Japanese foreign direct investment to China and its changes in trade structure since the 1990s
    作者: 蔡昀庭;Tsai, Yun-ting
    貢獻者: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班
    洪振義
    關鍵詞: 廣場協議;直接投資;內需;現地調度;逆輸入;Plaza Accord;direct investment;domestic demand;local requisition;プラザ合意;直接投資;内需;現地調達;逆輸入
    日期: 2010
    上傳時間: 2010-09-24
    摘要:   1985年廣場協議後日圓升值,使日本製造業生產成本提高、出口下降,促成了日本製造業向外擴張契機,當時正值東亞NIES成長茁壯之際,在工業技術也趨於成熟,在經濟發展亦以吸引外資、著重出口為導向,因製造環境及經濟發展符合日本製造業發展方向,便開始大量向東亞各國進行直接投資;日本在東亞各國的海外活動最初以NIES及ASEAN4為主要投資對象,從事IT電子產業製造工作,也帶動日本與東亞國家間的貿易,日本出口至東亞主要項目為電子零件等原料及中間財,進口最終製品及輕工業產品。90年代後,中國經濟開放,並設立經濟特區、提供外資優惠吸引外資進駐;日系企業則透過東亞分工體制,結合NIES技術優勢及ASEAN4貿易網,利用中國豐富勞動資源大量對中投資及貿易,將中國定位成製造.組裝成品並外銷至歐美市場的生產模式;90年代中期之後中國逐漸成為世界工場,NIES技術能力也不斷進步,日系企業開始將製造組裝重心移至中國,在NIES製造技術性零件,對ASEAN4從事汽車相關製造;而貿易出口方面仍以電子工業零件為主,例如:半導體電子零件、電氣機械較多,進口項目中NIES以機械零件較多、ASEAN4以天然資源及汽車相關零件為主,中國主要為紡織品及電氣機械類。
      2000年代後,中國技術能力日趨提升,2001年加入WTO投資貿易規制緩和,使內需急速擴大,日本對東亞海外活動重心漸漸移往中國;對中投資目的不再只有製造及外銷,保留市場據點成為投資的新目標,此外貿易也承襲了投資的改變:中國內需增加,帶動資本財、中間財貿易,又因為中國製品成本低廉,日本大量對中進口民生用品,使對中進口在2002年超越美國,改變了以往日本貿易結構。此外東亞在調度方面也開始減少依賴日本,現地調度及販賣相對增加,但逆輸入仍占多數,使日本出口減少、進口增加。而NIES技術不斷進步,日本與東亞間除了擁有投資關係外,也多了技術合作,不管對NIES、ASEAN4或是中國都有從垂直關係提升為水平關係的傾向。
      東亞國家技術發展日益健全,對日本的依賴減少,使出口成長有減緩的傾向;相對地貿易流通頻繁使日本對東亞的進口增加,直接投資與貿易活動盛行改變了日本以出口為主的貿易結構;如何在競爭激烈的現代求生存,成為日本的新課題。
    After Plaza Accord in 1985, the Japanese yen was appreciated. It made the cost of industry in Japan become higher and the export was low, so the Japanese companies had to make the new business in oversea. In that time, the east Asia countries, for example, NIES countries’ economy was developing, and they already had the technique in need. So it was the reason that Japanese companies chose them for direct investment, and focus on the NIES and the ASEAN4. They made the parts of the IT goods, and had the commerce with NIES and ASEAN4. For example, the Japanese companies exported material and parts to east Asia countries, and imported final products or fiber products. After 1990’s, the economy of China was developing, the Japanese companies set more factors in China, and connected the technique of NIES, well trade system in ASEAN4, and plenty labors in China to manufacture the products, and export to the West. China became the main factory on the world, and the Japanese companies put almost part of manufacture or the fiber factory to China. On the other hands, they made the technique parts in the NIES, and produced the goods of vehicles in ASEAN4.
    In 2000’s, China became the number of WTO, and had the good technique skills. The investment with China would not only produce but keep the market spots. The trade structure was also changed, Japanese companies exported more capital goods than before because of the China domestic demand, and imported more products. So the ranking of the Japanese importation from the all world was changed. USA was not the most main import country for Japan, instead of China in 2002. The requisition wouldn’t rely to Japan habitually, instead of local requisition, and so did marketing. It was not only investment but the cooperation between Japan and East Asia.
    Because of the well developed on East Asia countries, the exportation from Japan will become less and less. And the floating trade system makes the importation to Japan become constantly. The oversea activity may lose the technique skills for Japan. Surviving in the competitive age is the new subject for Japanese companies.
    顯示於類別:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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