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    題名: 民權運動與黑人權力-以60年代黑豹黨為例
    其他題名: The U.S. civil right movement and black power - a case study of black panther party in the 1960s
    作者: 顏郁惠;Yen, Yu-hui
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    紀舜傑;Ji, Shun-jie
    關鍵詞: 黑豹黨;黑人權力;黑人民族主義;Black Panther Party;black power;black nationalism
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-09-23 14:46:38 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 黑豹黨成立於1966年,在創辦人紐頓的帶領下,想要用革命,推翻美國長期以來的資本主義,而後給予黑人和弱勢族群,一個公平的機會與社會。1960年代,美國的民權運動如火如荼的進行著,在學生運動和反戰浪潮的推波助瀾之下,黑豹黨在加州奧克蘭成立總部,而後在全美各地設有分部,並且吸引了許多年輕人的參與,形成既金恩博士與麥爾坎X後,新一代的黑人精神和黑人權力指標。
    由於紐頓深受左派思想的影響,在帶領黑豹黨的期間,參考了許多左派人士的行事風格。像是運用了法農的流氓無產階級概念,吸引社會基層人物的加入,因為這樣激進的群體,將會是反對當權者的最佳力量。不只單單使用硬性的力量,黑豹黨也採取了軟性的方式,以做為革命路上的另一只棋。參考毛澤東服務人民的概念,黑豹黨隨後對於黑人社區有一連串的想法和計劃,提供了黑人及其他弱勢族群許多生活的幫助與協助。
    另外,由於黑豹黨聲名大噪,在美國境內和境外都蔚成一股風潮,也因此讓美國政府感受到一定的壓力,盡可能要降低黑豹黨所帶來的威脅。在與政府的交鋒之下,黑豹黨黨內又出現分歧的聲音。一派要直接往革命的終點邁進;另一派則是要打穩腳步,從社區服務開始。在種種錯綜複雜的情之況下,終導致黑豹黨的衰退。
    雖然隨著時代的變遷,黑豹黨消失於螢光幕前。然後不能否定的是,黑豹黨對於黑人權力的投入,和對世界其他組織的影響。風起雲湧的60年代,黑豹黨用異於民權運動初期的愛與和平,喚醒了黑人的意識,也讓各個階層的人聽見黑人的聲音,更讓世界發現美國另一番面貌。
    本論文的研究架構,首章為緒論。第二章為「黑豹黨的時代背景」。簡述黑豹黨從發跡到結束,也討論其組織的架構和運作。還有黑豹黨在崛起之時,和民權運動中的許多團體之交流和影響,以及黑豹黨的意識型態,如何影響整個黨未來的走向與發展。第三章為「黑人權力與黑豹黨」,本章節將會探討,黑人運動中一連串的想法和行為上的轉變,與當中發生的衝突。
    第四章為「黑豹黨的黑權成效」。此章將討論黑豹黨所實現之對社區的「救助計劃」,及在主流媒體中心,黑豹黨的形象轉變過程。最後將會分析,美國聯邦調查局一連串阻止黑豹黨的行動。第五章則是結論。內容將會說明,黑豹黨其政治思想和作為,如何影響世界其他左派組織。最後,總結黑豹黨整個發展和實踐,如何在美國黑人歷史中,留下其地位。
    The Black Panther Party was founded in 1966 by Huey P. Newton, and its goal was to overthrow capitalism through a revolution. If the revolution had success, the Black Panther Party would like to establish a fair society which could provide equal opportunities for every citizen. Since 1960s, the Civil Right Movement had been acting like a raging fire spread all over the United States, along with the student movement and the anti-war movement. Before long, the Black Panther Party appeared as new icon of black power. Under these circumstances, many young people decided to become members of the Black Panther Party, and fight for their own freedom.
    Newton had been immersed in left-wing ideologies, and he adopted different thinking and tactics from some great thinkers. For instance, the idea of lumpenproletariat was widely used in the party. The Panthers believed that the people in a low stratum of society could be the sweeping force against the authority. This was the hard power the Panthers had used. At the same time, the Panthers embraced the part of soft power in road of the revolution. They had plenty of plans and designs for communities, providing assistance and help for black people and the minorities.
    Thanks to the media, the Black Panther Party was getting well-known both inside and outside the U.S. Therefore, the government became aware of this phenomenon, and then tried to diminish the Panthers’ influences. Besides the government’s invasion, the Panthers encountered internal revolts as well. In this complex situation, the Black Panther Party began to fade.
    As time passed, the Black Panther Party was no longer being in the spotlight. However, the devotion of black power and impact of left ideologies the Panthers had once shown could not be denied. In a nutshell, the Black Panther Party aroused black consciousness and advanced black nationalism, the Party let people hear difference voices of the United States in the 1960s.
    顯示於類別:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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