Studies involving longitudinal binary responses are widely applied in the health and biomedical sciences research and frequently analyzed by generalized estimating equations (GEE) method. This article proposes an alternative goodness-of-fit test based on the nonparametric smoothing approach for assessing the adequacy of GEE fitted models, which can be regarded as an extension of the goodness-of-fit test of le Cessie and van Houwelingen (Biometrics 1991; 47:1267-1282). The expectation and approximate variance of the proposed test statistic are derived. The asymptotic distribution of the proposed test statistic in terms of a scaled chi-squared distribution and the power performance of the proposed test are discussed by simulation studies. The testing procedure is demonstrated by two real data.