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    题名: 災難的生命政治
    其它题名: The Biopolitics of Catastrophe
    作者: 蘇哲安
    贡献者: 淡江大學未來學研究所
    日期: 2008
    上传时间: 2010-04-15 16:18:55 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 早在1986 年的時候,貝克曾經指出「風險社會即是災難的社會」。根據貝克的分析, 有四個主要的結論值得重視:一、風險的場域已經擴及到了全球的規模;二、全球規 模的風險往往是無法挽回的超災難;三、資訊與媒體科技的進步已經打亂了傳統因果 論的理解並造成了因果之間新的共時性關係(短路的迴路);四、風險本身可能看不見。 根據「風險社會」以上四種特質,我們對「風險」的理解顯然無法受限於風險本身的 激烈度。更需要受重式的面向反而就是這些風險在地緣性與社會性上所帶來的可能政 治效應。由於資訊科技的輔助效果,後現代社會性的發展速度其實已經構成了一種病 毒式的邏輯。所謂風險社會就是指一個暴露於自己的資訊短路與資訊迴路的社會狀 態。這樣的社會一直不斷地力圖將自己本身的行為所造成但尚未顯現的後果納入行為 準則裡面並加以預防性的調節。如此的超暴露關係可以稱之為一種病毒生命邏輯(viral bio-logic)。面對如此的趨勢發展,我們不得不思考新一波的生命政治法西斯主義如何 可能產生。 Already in 1986, Ulrich Beck observed that the “society of risk is a society of the catastrophe.” According to Beck’s analysis, we can draw four main conclusions: 1) the entire globe as a whole is now the principal theater for risk; 2) the scale of devastation incurred by global risks are massive and most often irreparable by nature; 3) advances in communications and media technologies have effectively produced a temporal short-circuit in the forms of causality creating a new and highly problematic form of synchronicity that confuses the relation between the causes and effects of the catastrophic event; and 4) the risks are often of an invisible nature. Based on these salient features of the “society of risk,” it is clear that we cannot limit our understanding of risk to the terms of the intensity of the risks themselves. Attention must be given, rather, to their socio-geographical extension, especially the forms of political organization that may be derived therefrom. The intrinsic speed of contemporary, technologically-assisted, postmodern sociality follows the logic of communication—to be understood, according to the English word’s archaic roots, as a form of viral contagion. The society of risk is the state of a society exposed to itself which attempts to integrate in advance the as yet invisible consequences of its actions. Will this intrinsic overexposure—what can be called a viral bio-logic—lead to new forms of biopolitical fascism?
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