The study of tunnel fires is important in the design of long
vehicle tunnels in terms of fire management system, emergency exit,
and ventilation system. The physical behavior of tunnel fires can be
investigated experimentally or numerically. The difficulty of
experimental study is that a reduced-scale test cannot imitate the
characteristics of a full-scale fire due to their different turbulent scales.
Therefore, most fire tests have been conducted in full-scale tunnels.
This is costly and time consuming. Numerical simulation aided by
full-scale test is the pragmatic approach in the investigation of this
However, a real fire in long tunnels resulting from the burning of
a car or a truck is extremely complex and very difficult to simulate.
This is because a vehicle consists of many different materials and the
burning process involves many complex chemical reactions. In order
to reduce considerably the complexities of simulations, the fire is
treated as a predetermined heat source in the present study. A finite
difference method, which solves the unsteady, compressible,
three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation,
is employed to simulate this physical problem. The comparison of
numerical results with experimental data demonstrates that the
proposed method can be an effective engineering tool when dealing
with fires in the design of long vehicle tunnels.
Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering=淡江理工學刊 1(1), pp.49-59