The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of a pain education program to overcome patient-related barriers in managing cancer pain for Taiwanese home care patients with cancer. The pain education program was developed based on previous studies of Taiwanese patient-related barriers to cancer pain management. The Barriers Questionnaire–Taiwan form, the Brief Pain Inventory, the Medication Adherence Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire were used for data collection. The sample consisted of 18 patients in the experimental group and 19 patients in the control group. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and paired t tests were used to analyze the data. Results of this study revealed that patients who received the pain educational program had significantly greater reduction in Barriers Questionnaire–Taiwan form scores and more improvement in medication adherence compared with patients who did not participate in the program. When compared to pretest scores, patients scores after receiving the pain education intervention showed significant improvement on the Barriers Questionnaire–Taiwan form, medication adherence, pain intensity, and pain interference. The results of this study support the effectiveness of the pain education program on overcoming the barriers to cancer pain management for Taiwanese home care patients with cancer.