Longitudinal study has become one of the most commonly adopted designs in medical research. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) method and/or mixed effects models are employed very often in causal inferences. The related model diagnostic procedures are not yet fully formalized, and perhaps never will be. The potential causes of major problems are the high variety of the dependence within subjects and/or the number of repeated measurements. A single testing procedure, e.g., run test, is not possible to resolve all model diagnostics problems in longitudinal data analysis. Multiple quantitative indexes for model diagnostics are needed to take into account this variety. We propose eight testing procedures for randomness accompanied with some conventional and/or non-conventional plots to remedy model diagnostics in longitudinal data analysis. The proposed issue in this paper is well illustrated with four clinical studies in Taiwan.