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    题名: 1970年代初期(1970-72)與1990年代初期(1990-92)美國大學圖書館的組織結構
    作者: 蔡明月
    贡献者: 淡江大學資訊與圖書館學系
    关键词: 美國;大學圖書館;組織結構
    日期: 1994-12
    上传时间: 2010-05-26 18:50:39 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 臺灣大學圖書資訊學系
    摘要: 組織圖乃研究圖書館組織的基本要件。本研究旨在透過五所美國大學圖書館的組識圖分別比較1970年代初期與1990年代初期各個圖書館組織結構之異同,及各圖書館在該二時期組識結構的變化。比較的要素計有:(一)組織部門,下分(1)功能(如:分編、參考等),(2)學科(如:教育、物理等),(3)自治性質圖書館,(4)特殊館藏(如:輿圖、微縮資料等);(二)館長與副館長的權力範圍;(三)組織層級;(四)圖書館委員會;(五)圖書館的行政單位(如:會計、人事等)及(六)館長的名稱與上級單位。 1970年代初期與1990年代初期之大學圖書館的組織部門均結合功能、學科及特殊館藏等屬性而組成。唯,於1990年代各大學圖書館或新創組織,或更改舊組織名稱,或變動所屬單位以加強許多特定獨立的功能,例如:館際互借,館藏發展與管理、自動化等。儘管古典派管理理論存在有不少爲人詬病的缺點,直至1990年代初期,大學圖書館之組織結構充滿著傳統派管理學者費堯(Fayol)的梯形連鎖(Scalar Chain)與勞力分工(Division of Labor),韋伯(Weber)的官僚模式(Bureaucratic Model),及古立克(Gulick)與費堯的權力範圍(Span of Control)等理論色彩。
    The organization chart is treated as the essential element in the study of library organization. By the comparison of five American academic libraries, this study investigated (1) the differences in these libraries organizational structure for the years 1970-72 and 1990-92 and to identify any trends in organizational transition in academic libraries; (2) what organizational theories have been reflected in organizational charts of academic libraries. All the comparisons are based on the following dimensions: (a) departmentation structure by function, academic subject and form of resources; (b) span of control, or the number of positions supervised by high-level management; (c) level of hierarchy; (d) coordinating line, formal/informal or direct/indirect coordinating line of the organizational structure; (e) staff officers; (I) reporting line or reporting relationship; (g) title of manager, etc. In 1970-72, organization charts were mostly hierarchical and nearly all the library charts examined in 1990-92 continued to display a basically hierarchical structure also. While many of the 1990-92 charts indicate that academic libraries continue to be organized around traditional functions, most include more functions than twenty years ago, and many show units that have been moved around or renamed. Some charts reflect the growing importance of specific functions over the past twenty years. Obvious examples include development, interlibrary loan, preservation, collection development/management, planning, and automation. Since academic libraries have been traditionally structured, their organization charts have changed relatively little over the past twenty years and they still depend heavily on Weber, Fayol and Gulick's classical theories for the bases of their formal organization.
    關聯: 圖書館學刊=National Taiwan University Journal of Library Science 9,頁141-181
    DOI: 10.6182/jls.1994.9.141
    显示于类别:[資訊與圖書館學系暨研究所] 期刊論文

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