|摘要: ||在日本，各中、小學的上課時數與上課內容均必須以文部科學省所頒布的學習指導要領為依據。而學習指導要領必須不斷的順應時代需求做增修。2002年4月開始實施的新學習指導要領即一改以往的教育型態，為了力挽學力低下的狂瀾而倡導「能力分組教育」的小班教學。其目的在於培養學生獨立思考、自己發現問題，自己解決問題。並使學生具備生存所必須的能力。然而，「能力分組教育」的適當性卻在日本國內引起正反兩派的激論。 日本因實施「寬鬆教育」而大幅刪減上課時數與上課內容。這樣的做法引起社會各界對於學生的能力是否因此低下的疑慮。文部科學省為因應這樣的疑慮，而全面推行能使學習意願和基礎學力提升的「能力分組教育」。 「能力分組教育」對於學生的興趣及性向給予莫大的尊重，使學生能夠確實的習得各科的基礎、基本知識。其最終的目的在於給予各式各樣不同性格的學生最適當的學習機會。 然而，從實踐的例子來看，「能力分組教育」通常只對前段班的學生發揮功效，對於中、下段的學生而言，效果不彰。而且所有的學生都只想擠入前段班，沒有人會願意進入後段班。再加上保守黨的政治家們，總是以「破除悪平等」「挽救學力低下」之名，而行「英才教育」及「精英教育」之實。結果，實行「能力分組教育」的做法，往往淪為強化能力主義競争的手段。 因此，現階段要談全面推行「能力分組教育」並不恰當。現今「能力分組教育」的課題在於：如何將「能力分組教育」與「能力分班」做明確的區隔，使「能力分組教育」不至於淪為「精英教育」。並且，必須將「能力分組教育」的精神徹底落實。|
In Japan, curriculum and lecture hours in all junior high and elementary schools must comply with the courses of study curriculum conducted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The courses of study curriculum is constantly modified to keep pace with time. New version of the courses of study curriculum revised in April 2004 had dramatically changed traditional format of education. To reverse exceptionally low academic comprehension, so-call “teaching based on competence with limited number of students” was introduced. The goals include encouragement of independent thinking, spontaneous problem identification, and possession of essential ability to survive. However, the appropriateness of the system has caused controversial debate in Japan.
With the implementation of simplified curriculum, lecture hours and content of courses were considerably reduced. It triggered social concern over insufficient academic proficiency. To ease such concern, the Ministry carried out teaching based on competence that can stimulate interest of study and enhance fundamental academic capability.
Teaching based on competence shows great respect for students’ interests and characteristics. It enables students to fully study basic knowledge of all subjects. The ultimate aim is to provide appropriate opportunities to students with a wide spectrum of features.
Yet, practical experience suggests that it only works for upper-level students. For students with medium to lower-level of competence, the effect is not obvious. All students want to be classified as upper-level, and lower-level is absolutely not desired. Moreover, conservative politicians promote “elite education” with the argument of elimination of “evil” fairness and rejuvenation of poor academic ability. Therefore, teaching based on competence became a method of competition.
It is still premature to discuss the full execution of teaching based on competence. The main issue is the definite distinction between teaching based on competence and class separation based on competence. Teaching based on competence should not become elite education, and its core values must be visualized.