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    題名: 都市戴奧辛與多環芳香烴的宿命與風險評估
    其他題名: The fate and risk assessment of dioxins and PAHs in urban area
    作者: 鄭光榮;Cheng, Kuang-jung
    貢獻者: 淡江大學水資源及環境工程學系博士班
    陳俊成
    關鍵詞: 戴奧辛;多環芳香烴;多介質傳輸;風險評估;dioxin;PAHs(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons);multimedia transport;risk assessment
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 07:23:59 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究模擬大台北地區戴奧辛與多環芳香烴的宿,與居民之污染暴露風險。模擬區域包括台北市、台北縣、基隆市,先估計模擬區域之污染排放量後,再以污染物多介質逸壓模式,模擬17種毒性戴奧辛化合物及6種毒性多環芳香烴化合物,於多介質環境中之分佈。模擬介質包括空氣、懸浮微粒、水體、懸浮固體、土壤、底泥、植披與建築物表面之有機膜等。接著以人體多介質暴露模式(MMTD)計算人體的汙染暴露量,並推估其致癌風險。
    本研究模擬結果歸納如下:
    在多介質汙染宿命推估:
    1、PCDD/Fs與PAHs在環境介質中分佈之濃度,PCDFs於魚體中濃度最小,PCDDs除了1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD於魚體濃度較空氣大外;PCDDs於魚體之濃度為最小;PAHs則是空氣濃度最小。PCDD/Fs與PAHs於都市環境中,於有機膜之濃度為最高,其原因為有機膜之有機碳分率均較其他介質高。
    2、PCDD/Fs與PAHs在環境中之宿命:PCDD/Fs與PAHs最終累積於土壤中之比例最高,PCDD/Fs在環境中因對流與反應所造成之衰減移除,主要以空氣介質之對流現象佔最高之比例,而PAHs則是空氣介質之對流與反應移除佔最高比例。而整個環境中均是由空氣介質所造成之移除最高。
    3、在持久時間上,空氣介質之持久時間最短,土壤、底泥及懸浮固體之持久時間最長。
    4、PCDD/Fs之移動力慢需要長時間才能達到穩態。PAHs則約100000小時(11年)達到穩態。
    5、將17種毒性PCDD/Fs先經TEF轉換成TEQ排放量,經多介質模擬後,其環境各介質濃度,均較分別對17種毒性PCDD/Fs,經多介質模擬後,各介質濃度轉換成TEQ之濃度為低。
    在人體暴露風險評估:
    1、在吸入、攝入及皮膚吸收三大暴露途徑中,戴奧辛與PAHs主要以攝入為主要暴露途徑。
    2、在PAHs部分,男性暴露量最高為12.6 ng PEQ/day,發生於29歲;女性最高暴露量為9.83 ng PEQ/day,發生於56~59歲間。
    3、戴奧辛部分,男性暴露量最高為3.2 pg I-TEQ/day,發生於40~51歲間;女性最高暴露量為2.55 pg I-TEQ/day,發生於57~59歲間。
    4、考慮食物來源與食物吸收比率後,模擬出的終身致癌風險為:PAHs在男性為1.14×10-6,女性為1.06×10-6;戴奧辛在男性為4.04×10-6,女性為3.76×10-6。
    5、本模擬只考慮多介質中之空氣、水、土壤及底泥濃度,且相關數據並非本地資料,所以結果僅供參考。
    In this study, the resident’s exposure risk of dioxins and PAHs in Taipei Metropolitan area were assessed. In the assessment a multimedia transport model, the fugacity model, was applied to estimate the concentrations of seventeen toxic Dioxin compounds and six toxic PAHs(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) among the multimedia as the pollutant fate. The considered media includes air, water, soil, sediment, suspended solid, particular matter, plant cover, and the organic film to mimic building surface. The results from the multimedia transport model were then used for the subsequent risk assessment with a Multimedia Total Dose Analysis Model.
    To summarize the multimedia transport simulation results and the exposure risk assessment of dioxins and PAHs in Taipei Metropolitan area, this study drew to the following conclusions:
    The results of multimedia transport simulation:
    1、For accumulated quantity of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in compartments, PCDFs has the least accumulated mass in fish. PCDFs also has the least concentration in fish except 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD that has more concentration in air than in fish. PCDD/Fs and PAHs have the largest concentration on the organic film among the simulated media.
    2、The fate of PCDD/Fs and PAHs in the multimedia: Most PCDD/Fs and PAHs were found to accumulate in the soil media eventually. The major sink of PCDD/Fs was the convection in air compartment while PAHs was convection and reaction are two major sink mechanisms for PAHs in air. Both PCDD and PAHs have the highest decayed percentage in the air media.
    3、The shortest persistence time of pollutants occurred in air compartment, and the longest persistence time occurred in soil, sediment and suspended solid compartments.
    4、The dynamic reaction of PCDD/Fs requires a longer time to reach stable equilibrium when compared to PAHs that requires 100000 hours to reach a stable equilibrium stage.

    5、The concentrations calculated by an unified simulation approach (the 17 toxic Dioxin compounds are transferred to a unified 2,3,7,8-TCDD quantity by the TEQ base 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity) is less than those simulated by a multiple simulation (the 17 toxic Dioxin compounds are simulated separately) in all media.
    For the exposure risk assessment results, the following results were summarized:
    1、From the three exposed way, inhalation, take-in and skin absorption, it was found that intake is the main exposed way for Dioxin and PAHs.
    2、The exposed dosage of PAHs was assessed and the human intake level is 12.6 ng PEQ/day at the age of 29 years old. The maximum PAHs exposed quantity of the female is 9.83 ng PEQ/day at the age of 56-59 years old.
    3、The exposed dosage of Dioxin, was assessed and the human intake level is i 3.2 pg I-TEQ/day at the age of 40-51 years old. The maximum exposed quantity of the female is 2.55 pg I-TEQ/day at the age of 57-59 years old.
    4、For PAHs, the carcinogenic risk of the male is 1.14×10-6 and is 1.06×10-6 for female. For Dioxin, the carcinogenic risk of the male is 4.04×10-6 and is 3.76×10-6 for female.
    5、Since the combination just concern air, water, soil and sediment media and the local physiological data were not available, the results can be considered as preliminary results only.
    顯示於類別:[水資源及環境工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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