淡江大學機構典藏:Item 987654321/35746
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    Title: 利用粒子群聚演算法與基因演算法最佳化室內中繼天線位置
    Other Titles: Optimal relay antenna location in indoor environment using particle swarm optimizer and genetic algorithm
    Authors: 林金漢;Lin, Chin-han
    Contributors: 淡江大學電機工程學系碩士班
    丘建青;Chiu, Chien-ching
    Keywords: 粒子群聚演算法;基因演算法;位元錯誤率;失效率;射線彈跳追蹤法;PSO;GA;BER;Outage probability;SBR/Image
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 07:05:56 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來超寬頻通信系統漸漸在無線通訊界佔有一席之地,最令人注目的是它的傳輸特性:低功率、抗干擾、低成本、高度安全性…等,目前已有許多超寬頻通訊在室內傳輸的相關文獻已經被發表,其大多的研究是以模擬或量測方式找出影響通道的統計參數後,並分析在此通道統計模型下的系統傳輸錯誤率。
    本研究的目標是希望透過找到最佳位置的中繼天線,使系統的錯誤率降低,在一般室內環境中,無線訊號的傳遞容易受到環境的影響,如:電波信號經過牆壁、天花板、室內擺設的傢俱等,皆會造成無線電波到達接收天線的路徑有多重反射、繞射、透射等路徑效應,此一現象稱為多路徑效應(Multi-path Effect)。而此效應會造成符際間的干擾(InterSymbol Inference,ISI),導致通訊位元錯誤率(Bit Error Rate,BER)及失效率(Outage Probability)增加,造成通訊效率降低。因此,加入適當位置的中繼天線,及利用射線彈跳追蹤法可以模擬複雜環境、預測無線電波傳輸時的特性以及減少工作時間與成本可以改善通訊品質、減少錯誤率及失效率。為了得知無線訊號的脈衝響應(Impulse Responses),本文利用射線彈跳追蹤法(Shootin and Bouncing Ray/Image techniques,SBR/Image Techniques)和快速反傅立葉轉換(Inverse Fast Fourier Transform,IFFT)技術計算其脈衝響應,且使用二進制的脈波振幅調變(Binary Pulse Amplitude Modulation,BPAM)方法,進而計算超寬頻通訊系統的位元錯誤率及失效率。本篇論文裡,吾人分別針對兩種狀況,並利用粒子群聚演算法與基因演算法最佳化室內的中繼天線位置,之後探討其在超寬頻(Ultra-Wide Band,UWB)通訊上對降低位元錯誤率、失效率的影響。
    這兩種不同的狀況分別為:在相同環境下,1.兩個中繼器的情況用不同的兩種搜尋方式來搜尋。首先,發射器在室內環境中心點位置、每個接收器以0.5公尺間隔均勻分佈在環境內、將室內劃分為兩個區塊,每個區塊各找一個中繼器的最佳位置,中繼器可在區塊內自由移動。另一種搜尋方式為在全區域內找到兩個中繼器的最佳位置,中繼器可在區塊內自由移動。2. 四個中繼器的情況用不同的兩種搜尋方式來搜尋。首先,發射器在室內環境中心點位置、每個接收器以0.5公尺間隔均勻分佈在環境內、將室內劃分為四個區塊,每個區塊各找一個中繼器的最佳位置,中繼器可在區塊內自由移動。另一種搜尋情況為在全區域內找到四個中繼器的最佳位置,中繼器可在區塊內自由移動。
    最後得到粒子群聚演算法與基因演算法的數值結果,再將兩種演算法所得的結果代入射線彈跳追蹤法比較分析,吾人可發現透過兩種演算法所得的結果之一致性,因此,可驗證得到最佳中繼天線位置,進而有效降低環境失效率與錯誤率。
    An optimization procedure for the location of the relay transceiver in ultra-wideband wireless communication system is presented. The impulse responses of different transceiver locations are computed by shooting and bouncing ray/image (SBR/Image) techniques and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT).By using the impulse responses of these multi-path channels, the bit error rate (BER) performance for binary pulse amplitude modulation (BPAM) impulse radio UWB communication system are calculated. Based on the BER performance, the outage probability for any given relay location of the transceiver can be computed. The optimal relay antenna location for minimizing the outage probability is searched by genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimizer (PSO). The transmitter is in the center of the whole indoor environment and the receivers are uniform distributed with 1.5 meter intervals in the whole indoor environment. Two cases are considered as following. (I) Two relay transceivers with two different cases are employed. First, the whole space is divided into two areas and one relay transceiver is used in each area. The optimal relay antenna locations are searched in each area respectively. Second, the two optimal relay locations are searched in the whole space directly without any prior division. (II) Four relay transceivers with two different cases are employed. First, the whole space is divided into four areas and one relay transceiver is used in each area. The optimal relay antenna locations are searched in each area respectively. Second, the four optimal relay locations are searched in the whole space directly without any prior division. Numerical results have shown that our proposed method is effective for finding the optimal location for relay antenna to reduce BER and outage probability.
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