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    題名: 全方位移動機器人之運動控制
    其他題名: Motion control of an omni-directional mobile robot
    作者: 謝如蕓;Hsieh, Ju-yun
    貢獻者: 淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士班
    王銀添;Wang, Yin-tien
    關鍵詞: 全方位移動機器人;FPGA;PI控制;Omni-directional Mobile Robot;PID Control;PI Control;FPGA;VHDL
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 06:35:05 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究設計全方位移動機器人的運動控制器與機構驅動器,達到電流控制、速度控制以及位置控制。運動控制器設計將以全方位移動機器人的動態方程式為依據,透過系統參數規劃系統的反應特性,並實現在PC-based控制器上。機構驅動的部分,以可程式化邏輯晶片FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array)實現直流馬達數位式控制器。電路實現採用階層式與模組化設計方式,降低其複雜度,以電路共用的概念,降低邏輯閘數量。並以馬達性能設計閉迴路控制器,包含具備電流迴路PI控制器,以及馬達速度命令前饋+PI控制,且將傳統驅動器的週邊電路整合至FPGA中,是一個完整的驅動控制IP。在實作方面,依照所需之功能做設計,以VHDL語言在FPGA晶片上實現多個功能模組,發展的功能模組包括串列傳輸、電流回授數位接收、速度回授解碼、與PWM訊號產生等周邊電路模組;以及發展命令解碼模組,將接收到的控制命令解碼;最後是控制器模組的設計,由馬達端讀取的電流以及速度回授資料,並與下達給馬的命令做比較,設計為兩個控制模組,透過電流PI控制或速度前餽+PI控制,修正PWM訊號輸出,使馬達達到所希望的性能。
    In this thesis, it presents the implementation of motion control for an omni-directional mobile robot, by using a multi-loop control structure, namely, current loop control, speed loop control and position loop control. The dynamics equation of the omni-directional mobile robot was inferred based on the theory of robot kinematics and dynamics. According to this dynamics model, the position loop controller was designed and implemented on a personal computer. The current and speed loop controllers were derived based on the characteristics of the driving motor, and realized by using digital logic circuits in a FPGA device. Using the concept of hierarchical and modular realization strategy, the logic circuits in the FPGA were re-used to reduce the design complexity and to decrease the total number of used gate counts in the FPGA. Totally six function modules were devised in this research, including the modules of UART, command decoder, current and position encoder feedback, current controller, motor speed controller, and PWM generator. The integrated system was tested on an omni-directional mobile robot, and the results showed that the developed multi-loop motion control was well-designed.
    顯示於類別:[機械與機電工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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