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    Title: 機車引擎進排氣系統的實驗計畫分析及設計
    Other Titles: Experimental analysis and design for intake and exhaust air system in small engine
    Authors: 張庭豪;Chang, Ting-hao
    Contributors: 淡江大學機械與機電工程學系碩士班
    史建中;Shih, Chien-jong
    Keywords: 引擎進排氣系統;實驗計畫與分析;最佳化設計;Small engine;Intake and Exhaust pipeline;Design of experiment and analysis;Design optimization
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 06:19:14 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究應用實驗計畫,實驗分析與多目標最佳化方法,以提高四行程機車引擎的輸出扭力。近年來因地球暖化現象與替代能源開發不易的情況下,使得更注重節能減碳的研究。由文獻探討得知可經由進排氣管路系統的設計,提高引擎輸出扭力。所以本研究改善機車引擎進排氣管路系統設計,提高引擎輸出扭力,並降低油耗與污染物的排放量。經研究得知,機車在4000rpm至5500rpm的輸出扭力不足,影響加速性能,所以特別注重在此轉速區域的性能改善與提升。
    本研究採用排氣量為125c.c的引擎原型機車為對象,以管路的長度與直徑為設計因子,採用3水準的實驗設計。經由實驗計畫與分析方法獲得扭力、燃油消耗量、CO與HC的反應方程式,利用多目標最最佳化方法,同時求解最大輸出扭力,最小燃油消耗量,最少的一氧化碳與碳氫化合物排放量,得到最佳的進氣管路設計。首先,改良原型車單管進氣系統的設計,設定扭力及燃油消耗量在不同轉速的權重比與4項性能的權重設計,能有效改善低轉速區域的輸出扭力之不足,也降低油耗及碳氫化合物。根據改良單管設計的基礎,進行二管模式的模擬可變容積進氣管路系統的實驗計畫分析與最佳設計,當扭力在5500rpm至6500rpm有較大的權重比與4項性能的權重設計,得到二支管的最佳管長,最佳管徑及最佳閥門切換轉速時間點,比改良的最佳化單管進氣系統增加全域扭力1.64%,同時降低一氧化碳與碳氫化合物排放量為1.92%與4.41%。再進一步研究三管模式的模擬可變容積進氣管路系統設計,得到三支管的最佳管長,最佳管徑與兩個最佳閥門切換轉速時間點,比改良最佳化單管進氣系統增加全域扭力2.6%,降低一氧化碳與碳氫化合物排放量分別為0.63%與6.87%,並繪製最佳進氣管長與管徑的管路設計配置圖。排氣管路系統以排氣管長度、直徑與擴管大小為實驗變數,經由實驗及研究得知實驗設計變數與引擎性能的關係及得到排氣管路之設計準則。
    本研究能有效改善原型機車的性能,尤以三管模式可變容積進氣管路系統更加顯著提升機車加速性與全域輸出扭力,並降低油耗與碳氫化合物的排放。降低一氧化碳排放量並不顯著,可能需由引擎的燃燒或空氣燃料比的部份去研究改善。另外,三管模式的研發與製造成本較高,由此推論得知,二管模式不失為可行的最簡可變容積進氣管路。本研究亦得知排氣管的管長增加,可增加些許的輸出扭力。當管徑減小時,可減少些許碳的排放。排氣管的擴大效應能有效增大輸出扭力。本文以標準實驗計劃法,結合反應曲面式及最佳化的設計方法,能有效應用於機車引擎進排氣系統設計。
    This thesis contains the design of experiments, experimental execution, analyses of experiments, and multi-objective design optimization that promotes the overall engine torque characteristics in a small type of 4-stroke engine. Particularly to promote the accelerating engine torque between 4000 to 5500 rpm, the primary target requires to redesign the intake air pipeline system and exhaust pipe line system. Moreover, in the current age, a common knowledge of saving energy and to maintain a clean and high level environmental quality is extremely urgent in developing the engine pipeline system used injection fuel system so that the high engine torque performance can be achieved.
    A 125cc original motor bicycle is used for the study by applying the formal technique of experimental design and analysis to obtain the optimum output torque, fuel consumption, CO and HC compound of a small engine. The response surface functions of those four performances corresponding to the mechanical factors of pipeline are investigated. Such mathematical information is utilized for constructing four objectives design optimization so that the optimum sizes of intake pipeline can be obtained. Several cases studies under this investigation include the weighting method for four design objectives. Three primary stages with strategies are performed for the redesign to the pipeline. First of all, the redesign of the intake and exhaust air pipeline for an existing motor bicycle. The second important phase is to simulate the variable volume pipeline by a two-pipe model with a switch valve. The design variables are diameters of two pipe, two pipe lengths and the optimum speed of switch valve opening. This two-pipe model has a torque-drop phenomenon during the opening of switch valve. Therefore, a three-pipe model is proposed for the further study. In that case, eight design variables including three diameters, three lengths and two speeds of opening switch valves to maximize the engine torque, minimize the fuel consumption, and minimize pollutions, simultaneously.
    This study proposed a workable design of experiment, analysis and optimization in a sequent process for improving the engine characteristics. A three-pipe model of simulating the variable volume of intake air system is the most recommended to enhancing the output torque, save energy and reduce the outcome pollution. The two-pipe model is usable due to its economic and simple structure.
    Appears in Collections:[機械與機電工程學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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