為了讓Hyper Pen及後端的學習管理系統能達到訊息溝通的目的，在本論文中，我們定義了不同性質的Hard SCORM標籤，用以呈現相關之數位學習資源及課程內容互動性於紙本書籍中。這些Hard SCORM標籤可透過前述之課程編輯系統印製於紙本書籍的字裡行間中，讓學習者透過Hyper Pen進行辨識，並結合多樣化之電子式學習載具呈現相關數位學習資源，進而達到將實體文件中的資訊與數位世界的資訊相互連結。而為有效管理學習者於紙本書籍中之學習行為，我們提出了一個基於有限狀態機概念之學習規範機制，稱為Hard SCORM Machine (HSM)以進行紙本書籍中之學習行為規範，其包含了學習行為規則的定義以及相對應的系統回應動作。因此，學習者可在不失去閱讀紙本上的舒適性與參考資料的豐富性上取得一個平衡點，而這些學習行為也將滿足SCORM所定義出的學習模式。 The Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) includes a representation of distance learning contents and a behavior definition of how users should interact with the contents. The reference model is widely used in the development of authoring tools, learning management systems, and content repositories for the e-Learning community.
Up to now, most e-Learning systems have been based on multimedia and Web technologies on electronic learning platforms, such as personal computers and handheld devices. We take a further step to advance the field by implementing a pervasive learning environment which enables learners to read SCORM-compliant hard-copy textbooks using multimodal multimedia devices. The pervasive learning environment with SCORM-compliant hard-copy textbooks is called “Hard SCORM” learning environment, which employs a pen-like OCR device (called Hyper Pen) as an input mechanism to affiliate the physical world of printed pages and the virtual world of computers. With respect to the learning contents for supporting such learning environment, an efficient authoring tool was developed for serving the generation and consistency of learning contents while being applied to the multimodal learning devices with different layouts.
Some specific tags were defined to specify the corresponding information or interactions that can not be performed in the hard-copy books. These tags can be printed in SCORM-compliant textbooks and recognized by Hyper Pen for the navigation control. A computer, a PDA, or a cellular phone can be used for supervising the user learning behavior using the Hard SCORM Machine (HSM). The HSM is based on the concept of Finite State Machine and contains a formal definition of the functionalities and system response actions. Therefore, learners can read hard-copy textbooks in a traditional manner while the process of reading conforms to the SCORM specification.