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    Title: 從「內丹」到「內家」的義理詮釋
    Other Titles: From Nei-dan to Nei-jia : interpretations of their meanings
    Authors: 林世奇;Lin, Shih-chi
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    高柏園;Kao, Po-yuan
    Keywords: 內丹;內家;以術證道;nei-dan (inner energy);nei-jia (inner practice);yi-shu-zheng-tao (proving tao through shu)
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 05:16:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在道家學術之中,「道」的闡述雖多,「術」的討論卻寡,「內丹」之研究固鮮,「內家」之專論更罕。學界與庶民對「術」與「道」的關注各異,形上的理論著作,相繼產出於學術論壇;形下的修煉之術,則流行於庶民社會。道術之間,兩不干涉:論道者言心論性,清明有據,論術則語焉不詳;研術者夸夸其談,實踐切實有得,論理又難免錯漏。道術相絕如是,謬說不免視為正史。至於內家與內丹之關係,乃至道家思想所起的指導作用,學界亦罕有關注。

    從內丹到內家,在「以術證道」思想影響中,各具成就。內丹本意在於長生;內家則在於克敵,其領域懸絕如是,卻能一理相通,諸法共轍,乃至合流匯宗,俱保留了重視現世、強調肉體、提倡身心合一的主張,共同體現了傳統文化在生命安頓上的一種重要趨勢,其影響遍及全球(太極拳即其顯例)。其內在原因,實為「以術證道」思想的體現。故本文以「內丹」與「內家」為研究對象,通過「以術證道」的主題,揭示二者內在的相關性,由此建立論題,展開義理之詮釋。

    由先秦老莊,到唐宋以後的內丹,理論既通,功法亦得承襲,自「河上公注」以煉養解老,以內丹注《老》《莊》者日眾,由老莊所言之道,開展為煉養之「術」,進而融為「以術證道」的傾向。其思想既醞釀成熟,民間方術與此相遇,不免浸潤濡染,引為其理論張本,明末「內家」乃援丹入武,歸武於道,形成丹武合流現象,此類「道術相通」的現象日益廣泛,影響至為深遠。

    本文的研究進程中,首先梳理其發展脈絡,開顯其歷史發展中的發生義,排除傳說之障蔽,還原其術法建構中的階段意義。通過跨科通觀、探源辨流、分析異同,突顯其道家學術之特色。其次通過本體論、修養論、境界論的層次,就其性命雙修之「術」如何體道、證道,進行後設的理論重構,並藉由大方向的掌握(內外之別)到理論的歸趨,探究內丹學對內家武學的影響,抉發其間文化的意涵,以明道家學術特有性格及價值之所在。
    Among the studies of Taoism, there are plenty of discussions about tao or the ways, but few about shu or the techniques. Moreover, studies regarding nei-dan or inner energy are already hard to find; those dealing with nei-jia or inner practice seem even fewer. The scholars and the public focus on different aspects of tao and shu. As a result, theories on xing-shang or metaphysics abound in scholastics whereas those on techniques or practices prove popular among the public. Tao and shu may remain separate in the fact that the former devotes to the mind and character relying much on evidence while the latter on actual practice and experience, eloquent in talks but weak in theories. Due to such a disparity, the misinterpreted have sometimes be construed as the authoritative. As for the relations between nei-jia and nei-dan, or even the influence from Taoist thoughts, they have often escaped scholars’attention.

    Nei-dan and nei-jia both have their own contributions to the thought of “proving tao through shu.”Nei-dan aims to ensure longevity and nei-jia intends to fight off enemies. It seems that their foci are different. However, both of them assert the importance of the present, the physique as well as the harmonious combination of body and mind. In this regard, they have represented an important trend worldwide of how traditional culture can ease life—tai-chi is a good example. The key lies in putting into actual practice the thought of proving tao through shu. Therefore, this dissertation would like to investigate the interrelationships between nei-dan and nei-jia under the topic of proving tao through shu, so relevant expositions will be presented.

    From the works of Lao-zi and Zhuang-zi dating from the Qin Dynasty to nei-dan well after the Tang and Song Dynasties, related theories and specialized techniques have been established. Take He-Shang-Guong-Zhu for instance, this book records how to defy aging via practicing alchemy. Many scholars have elaborated on the works of Lao-zi and Zhuang-zi through the nei-dan perspective, who started off as a kind of shu or technique but ended up proving tao through shu. With such a trend becoming well established, the public would pick up the essence, which was then incorporated into their own theoretical frameworks. One example can be found near the end of the Ming Dynasty when nei-jia was introduced into martial arts, with martial arts integrating with tao. Such a phenomenon of “tao merging with shu” would later become more and more common, bringing about a far-reaching influence.

    This dissertation begins with tracing the developments of shu and clarifying mis-concepts from legends so as to re-construct its meaning in various phases. Then, its Taoist characteristic is illustrated through inter-disciplinary discussions, origin tracing, and analyses of their differences and similarities. Later on, theories will be proposed regarding how shu can be utilized to experience and prove tao on three levels. In addition, the impact of nei-dan upon nei-jia martial arts is illuminated with a focus on cultural meanings so that its particular Taoist character and values are manifested.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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