|其他題名: ||From Nei-dan to Nei-jia : interpretations of their meanings|
|作者: ||林世奇;Lin, Shih-chi|
|關鍵詞: ||內丹;內家;以術證道;nei-dan (inner energy);nei-jia (inner practice);yi-shu-zheng-tao (proving tao through shu)|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-11 05:16:28 (UTC+8)|
Among the studies of Taoism, there are plenty of discussions about tao or the ways, but few about shu or the techniques. Moreover, studies regarding nei-dan or inner energy are already hard to find; those dealing with nei-jia or inner practice seem even fewer. The scholars and the public focus on different aspects of tao and shu. As a result, theories on xing-shang or metaphysics abound in scholastics whereas those on techniques or practices prove popular among the public. Tao and shu may remain separate in the fact that the former devotes to the mind and character relying much on evidence while the latter on actual practice and experience, eloquent in talks but weak in theories. Due to such a disparity, the misinterpreted have sometimes be construed as the authoritative. As for the relations between nei-jia and nei-dan, or even the influence from Taoist thoughts, they have often escaped scholars’attention.
Nei-dan and nei-jia both have their own contributions to the thought of “proving tao through shu.”Nei-dan aims to ensure longevity and nei-jia intends to fight off enemies. It seems that their foci are different. However, both of them assert the importance of the present, the physique as well as the harmonious combination of body and mind. In this regard, they have represented an important trend worldwide of how traditional culture can ease life—tai-chi is a good example. The key lies in putting into actual practice the thought of proving tao through shu. Therefore, this dissertation would like to investigate the interrelationships between nei-dan and nei-jia under the topic of proving tao through shu, so relevant expositions will be presented.
From the works of Lao-zi and Zhuang-zi dating from the Qin Dynasty to nei-dan well after the Tang and Song Dynasties, related theories and specialized techniques have been established. Take He-Shang-Guong-Zhu for instance, this book records how to defy aging via practicing alchemy. Many scholars have elaborated on the works of Lao-zi and Zhuang-zi through the nei-dan perspective, who started off as a kind of shu or technique but ended up proving tao through shu. With such a trend becoming well established, the public would pick up the essence, which was then incorporated into their own theoretical frameworks. One example can be found near the end of the Ming Dynasty when nei-jia was introduced into martial arts, with martial arts integrating with tao. Such a phenomenon of “tao merging with shu” would later become more and more common, bringing about a far-reaching influence.
This dissertation begins with tracing the developments of shu and clarifying mis-concepts from legends so as to re-construct its meaning in various phases. Then, its Taoist characteristic is illustrated through inter-disciplinary discussions, origin tracing, and analyses of their differences and similarities. Later on, theories will be proposed regarding how shu can be utilized to experience and prove tao on three levels. In addition, the impact of nei-dan upon nei-jia martial arts is illuminated with a focus on cultural meanings so that its particular Taoist character and values are manifested.