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    Title: 從貞觀政要論李世民政治思想
    Other Titles: emperor Taizong's political thought in the book: Zhen Guan Zheng Yao
    Authors: 黃南競;Huang, Nan-ching
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士在職專班
    高柏園;Kao, Po-yuan
    Keywords: 唐太宗;李世民;貞觀政要;貞觀之治;政治思想;Emperor Taizong of Tang;Li Shimin;Zhen Guan Zheng Yao;Reign of Zhen Guan;Political Thought
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 05:15:41 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 唐太宗(年號貞觀)在位23年(西元六二四年-西元六四七年),是最為世人津津樂道的太平盛世,也是中國歷史上最為光輝耀眼的一頁,史稱「貞觀之治」。而「貞觀政要」最為歌頌以及所欲師法者,不外乎是「納諫」與「任賢」這兩部分。玄武門之變在我國的歷史上也激起反思,玄武門之變除了是爭權奪利的事件,也是對傳統嫡長制的挑戰,所須考慮的是如何將國家治理的更好及自身的才能武功讓人臣服,對以往出身即為太子,長大後便為皇帝嫡長子而言,除了體制上的傳統外,也需藉由自己積極開拓來奠定基礎。唐太宗「推誠之至,始獲忠心」的胸懷,也具體表現在他對部屬的信用不疑上。治理朝政所任臣吏特別著重在「因材適所」、「用人唯才」、「任人唯賢」的大公無私胸襟,「適材適所」的讓賢才能全方位且無後顧之憂的去發揮所長。貞觀政要所顯示的君臣溝通文化,無論是在溝通的對象、溝通的內容、溝通的層次性等,均成為中國君主專制政體之下君臣溝通文化的典範。
    貞觀之治在國史上,它是很光輝的一頁。史家都贊揚它,讀中國歷史的學者都神往它。我們也因有貞觀之治而感到驕傲。但它不是奇蹟,而是時間、空間、人物、和情勢各項因素所配合而成的。那是一種政治天才的體現,和政治藝術的傑作,無論如可,總是值得佩慰的。貞觀之治是個特殊的政績,前無古人,後無來者。以往的成康之治、文景之治似均稍遜一籌,後來的開元之治、唐雍之治,似亦有所不及。
    歷朝之治亂與衰,恒有其定律,此則不因君主或民主而異,亦不因古今中外而有殊。從紛雜史料中,尋求其共同的理念,則對人類的歷史可找出若干可循和足以參證的資料。故貞觀之治對於現代而言,仍有其研究及參考的價值。
    中國五千年歷史,二十二朝代中,國勢強盛,疆域最廣,文風教育鼎盛,對於宏揚華夏威儀之世至深,就要算是「大唐盛世」。無怪乎連歷史對大唐也有「萬國衣冠冕旒」的美稱,被四夷君長尊為「天可汗」的唐太宗李世民,除為開國功臣更是奠定盛世的偉大人物。唐太宗(年號貞觀)在位23年,就時間言雖不及康熙與乾隆,但史稱的「貞觀之治」卻是最為世人所津津樂道的太平盛世,同時也是中國歷史上最為光輝耀眼的一頁。
    Emperor Taizong of Tang, whose era name is Zhen’guan, had ruled China from 624 to 647. During his reign, China became tremendously peaceful and prosperous, and this period, which has been usually called “Reign of Zhen’guan”or “Zhen’guan Prosperity,” is commonly viewed as a glorious page in Chinese history. “Zhen Guan Zheng Yao” is a book recording Taizong’s political discussion with his courtiers, in which “admonition” and “meritocracy” are the very essence that people later on would like to capture or extol. Additionally, Taizong’s “Incident of Xuanwu Gate” is indeed worthwhile to give some thought from a different angle. Such an incident is not merely a political infighting over the succession to the throne, but it is also a challenge to the primogeniture system, which says that the eldest son should inherit and take the position as the “Crown Prince” before he becomes the next head of state. This incident, namely, implies that, the eldest or not, anyone of the emperor’s sons may have the chance to be the new ruler as long as he is able to demonstrate his talents and capabilities for governing a nation and subjugating its people. As to the “Crown Prince”, who is traditionally and systematically the next in line to the throne, he is required to enhance his own reputation in battle. Taizong, a prince of high caliber but the second son to the imperial family, seizes power through political maneuvers. After ascending the throne, Taizong places his full trust in those who work under him in exchange for their unswerving loyalty. Besides, he is well-known for his benevolence and care for governance, and his magnanimity is embodied in the appointment and recruitment of civil officials on the basis of their aptitude, competence, and virtue. In brief, the book, “Zhen Guan Zheng Yao,” has turned into a cultural paradigm of the communication between the monarch and his subjects, judging from the book’s scope and content.

    There is no doubt that “Reign of Zhen’guan”or “Zhen’guan Prosperity” is a glorious page in history. Most historians would give this period high praise, and scholars researching into Chinese history yearn for it. Deeply rooted in Chinese culture, people here in Taiwan are proud to have it. However, rather than a miracle, it is a unique combination resulting from the right time and space, with the right people and appropriate circumstances. Simply put, there was and will be no comparison between this period and others.

    Regardless of the difference of time and space, there seems to be a constant rule to explain the rise and fall of all powers, be it a monarchy or a democracy. By plowing on with numerous historical archives and materials, we can learn from the past so as to look ahead. As a consequence, “Reign of Zhen’guan”or “Zhen’guan Prosperity” deserves to be explored from a modern perspective.

    Compared with the other 21 dynasties within the China’s history of 5000 years, Tang dynasty is perceived as the zenith in Chinese civilization. Tang China also flourishes economically and militarily while emperor Taizong reigns. After defeating those nomadic kingdoms around Tang China, the emperor Taizong wins the title of “Tien Kehan”(Heavenly Khan). Taizong contributes significantly to the founding of Tang dynasty and is considered one of the greatest emperors in all of Chinese history. As far as the span of Taizong’s reign is concerned, an entire 23-year reign can hardly compare to the two emperors’ reign of the Manchu Qing dynasty, Kangxi and emperor Qianlong, who ruled China 60 and 61 years respectively. In spite of this, what people today would lovely to talk about is still Taizong’s “Reign of Zhen’guan”or “Zhen’guan Prosperity.” It is a period which will go down in history.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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