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    Title: 羅門詩觀及其都市詩與自然詩研究 : 以「第三自然螺旋型架構」為中心
    Other Titles: Study of Lo Men's poetic theory with his city-poem and nature-poem : based on his spiral structure of the third nature
    Authors: 詹林益;Chan, Lin-i
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士在職專班
    張雙英;Zhang, Shuang-ying
    Keywords: 羅門;都市;自然;螺旋型架構;Lo Men;City;nature;Spiral Structure
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 05:11:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 詩是以精煉而富節奏的語言文字來表現美感、抒發情志的文體,從「古典詩」發展到現在的「現代詩」,「詩」在形式上、表現手法上與用詞用語上,都起了相當大的變化,但唯一不變的,就是「詩言志」的基本精神是永遠存在的。西方文化東漸後,現代詩人在「現代詩」的創作手法上有過長期的論戰,有了詩的論戰,也凸顯了「現代詩」在文壇與學術研究的重要性。現代詩人因「現代詩」詩壇與學術界得到重視而更亟力於創造自己的一片天空,羅門「第三自然螺旋型架構」也就是在這種環境下建造而成的,同時也配合「燈屋」,展現他個人對「現代詩」的真知、卓見與成就。
    羅門創作的題材相當廣泛,有寫戰爭、死亡和時空的,有寫都市、自然和自我與抒情的,也提出一套完整的創作觀。基本上,創作觀是配合自己的創作所建構出來的創作理論,這個理論歸結為──「第三自然螺旋型架構」。「第三自然螺旋型架構」大體是對都市生活的觀照所發展出來的一套創作理論,羅門將它切割成三個層次──「第一自然」、「第二自然」和「第三自然」。這三個層次是相互牽引,有密切的關係。為了讓讀者和研究者了解他的創作歷程以及作品想要表現的意涵與旨趣,羅門花了很多工夫在闡述他的「第三自然螺旋型架構」。表面看來,「第三自然螺旋型架構」是有些複雜,但說穿了,其實就是指「詩」能夠創造「第三自然」美的存在世界和永恆的生命。為了能夠讓「第三自然螺旋型架構」與時並進,順應潮流不落伍,羅門因此套入了一些西方或者現代的創作理論和手法,使得「第三自然螺旋型架構」理論產生中、西合流的特點,但羅門對西方某些創作理論的解讀和評論產生問題,使得評介者或研究者提出不同看法予以批判。
    羅門為什麼會將三個層次以「自然」來定義,主要是羅門站在與上帝齊肩的制高點看地球上的一切事物。這三個「自然」不是一般人認知的自然,而是有透過「人為」的自然。馬來西亞華裔學者侯亨能將三個「自然」更名為三個世界,其實也不無不可。羅門建構「第三自然螺旋型架構」理論是從「第二自然」近逼「第一自然」後,使得人類在「物慾」與「性慾」的形下壓迫而無法將心靈解放出來,因此必須以詩和藝術來作為融合「第一自然」與「第二自然」的催化劑,進入到「第三自然」美的永恆世界。因此,羅門特別觀照都市與自然這兩個人類賴以生存的現實環境。
    在「第三自然螺旋型架構」理論的基礎下,羅門以「都市詩」和「自然詩」作為現代詩的創作主題。明顯地,該創作理論與這兩個創作主題有密切的關係。基於此,筆者便以「都市詩」和「自然詩」作為研究議題,並以「第三自然螺旋型架構」為中心,來探討羅門在現代詩歌的表現情形。
    The poem is a literary style that displays the esthetic sense and expresses the sentiment will by the fine and the rich rhythm''s language. Developing from the “classical poem” to the “modern poem”, there is a quite big change on the style, the way of expression and the word usage of poem. But the only thing unchanged is the basic spirit “ the poem tells will”. After the western culture penetrates to the eastern world, the modern poet has had a long-term controversy in the creating-technique of “modern poem”. Due to the poem controversy, it also highlights the importance of “the modern poem” in the literary arena and the academic research. Because the importance of “modern poem” is highly valued in the poetic field and the academia, modern poets work hard to create own sky for themselves. The “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature” of Lo Men was created under this kind of situation. In addition with the “ lamp house”, they show the true knowledge, distinguished opinion and achievement of Lo Men on the “modern poem”.
    The creating subject of Lo Men is quite comprehensive including war, death, space time, city, nature, selfhood and lyric. He also proposes a complete set of poetic philosophy. Basically, poetic philosophy is developed under the poetic theory coordinating to his work. This theory sums up as “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature”. The “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature” is a set of creation theory that developed by the contemplation to city life. Lo Men classified this theory by three levels----“the First Nature”, “the Second Nature” and “the Third Nature”. These three levels are affected mutually with close relationship. In order to let readers and researchers understand his creating process as well as the meaning and idea, Lo Men has spent a lot of efforts to elaborate his “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature”. It looks like the “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature” is quite complicated; but actually it tells that poem is able to create the existing world and the eternal life of “the Third Nature”. In order to keep the “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature” updated with the current trend without out-of- date, Lo Men therefore uses some western and modern creating theory and technique to bring forth the feature of combining Chinese and Western trend in his “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature”. However, because of the problem with Lo Men’s explanation and comment to some of western creating theory, it makes researchers or commentators propose different point of view to criticize him.
    The reason that Lo Men defines the three levels by “ The Nature” is because he is standing at the same high altitude as the God to look at the all things on Earth. The three “ The Nature” is not the “nature” that recognized by the ordinary people, but the artificial nature. Malaysian scholar H.N. Law(侯亨能)changes the name of “The Nature” to “ The World” which is also acceptable. Lo Men constructs the theory of “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature” by approaching the “the Second Nature” to “the First Nature” to make the human beings unable to release under the pressure of “the desire for material welfare” and “the sexual desire”. Therefore, Lo Men has to use poem and art as activator to combine “the First Nature” and “the Second Nature”, then gets into the beautiful eternal world of “the Third Nature” finally. For this reason, Lo Men specially pays high attention to the environment of city and nature that human beings live.
    Based on the theory of “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature”, Lo Men uses the “City-Poem” and “Nature-Poem” as the subject in the modern poem. Apparently, this creating-theory has close relationship with these two subjects. Based on this statement, I take the “City-Poem” and “Nature-Poem” as the subject of my research and study the performance of Lo Men’s in the modern poetry on the basis of “Spiral Structure of the Third Nature”.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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