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    題名: 參漢酌金 清太宗嗣統及其統治政策的形成
    其他題名: Ch'ing T'ai-tsung's succession to the throne and the making of his ruling policy
    作者: 洪藝珊;Hung, Yi-shan
    貢獻者: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士班
    莊吉發;Zhuang, Ji-fa
    關鍵詞: 清太宗;皇太極;清朝前期;滿洲;參漢酌金;Ch'ing Tai-tsung;Huangtaiji;The early Ch'ing period;Manchu
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-11 05:06:02 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 滿族入關前的許多問題,如八旗制度、汗位的繼承、戰爭的情形等,都已經有過討論,本論文嘗試在這些微觀研究的基礎之上,嘗試以宏觀地角度綜合分析建州女真由小變大,由弱轉強的過程。論述皇太極以集中汗權為主軸,對國家主體意識、典章制度、族群融合以及勢力擴張所做的努力,亦即建州女真(jušen)、滿族(manju uksura)、清朝(daichin gurun)這一相同內涵的組織的連續發展過程。

    分析皇太極統治政策的形成過程,可以了解皇太極如何處理內部的挑戰和外部的危機,內部的挑戰導因於皇太極是經由推選而繼承汗位,汗權受到代善、阿敏、莽古爾泰三大貝勒的威脅,如何能夠和緩地集中汗權,是皇太極的一大挑戰。此外,國中族群衝突的問題,更是導致社會衝突的主因,涇渭分明的各個族群,如何凝聚共識,融合成為一個具有共同意識的共同體,是皇太極的另一挑戰。外部的危機則是因為受到明朝、朝鮮、蒙古的安全威脅。皇太極以先內部後外部,對外先小後強的順序一一解決問題,整合國家力量使得清朝勢力發展成為可以與明朝分庭抗禮的力量,甚至有了逐鹿中原的條件。

    尤其皇太極對於女真文化和周遭的文化,具有高度自主的選擇意識,在參漢酌金的原則下,建立起一套適合金國的制度,而且為了解決國中多民族共存而產生的族群對立問題,以「滿洲」作為新族稱,透過語言、宗教、文化來凝聚國人的共同意識,促成了滿族共同體的產生。這些對於清朝勢力的發展有很大的助益,對於之後滿族得以入關取代明朝,並有長達268年的統治,極具關鍵性。
    There are many problems occurred when Manchu rule China before, such as Eight Banner Unit, succession of han, and the battle situations, etc., which have been discussed previously. In the thesis, I tried to study microscopically and analyze macroscopically the process of how Jianzhou Jurchen had turned itself from small and weak to big and strong, as well as the continuously developing process of Jianzhou Jurchen, Manchu, and the Ch’ing dynasty , which shared the same cultivation and systems.

    When we analyzed the process of Huangtaiji’s dominion, we can comprehend how Huangtaiji dealt with the inner challenges and outer crises. The inner challenges were occurred due to Huangtaiji was elected to inherit the sovereignty of han, which was threatened by three beiles, Dai-shan, A-min, and Mang-gu-er-tai. How to centralize the khan authority was indeed a big challenge for Huangtaiji.

    Besides, the chaos of national racism was the major issue resulting in social conflicts. Diverse ethnicity, how to cohere consensus and further integrate into a community with the same consciousness were another challenges for Huangtaiji.

    The outer crises were occurred because of the threats in security from the Ming Dynasty, Choson Korean, and Mongolia. Huangtaiji at first fought his rivals from inter to outer and then from weak to strong to solve the problems step by step. The First Emperor of the Ch''ing Dynasty integrated the forces of his domain by overcoming all the obstacles, big and small, internal and external, thus successded in developing the Ch''ing forces into a power strong enough to contend China proper with the Ming Dynasty.
    顯示於類別:[歷史學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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