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    Title: 宋代對蝗災的認識與回應
    Other Titles: The Song dynasty's awareness and response to locus disasters
    Authors: 張志強;Chang, Chih-chiang
    Contributors: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士班
    葉鴻灑;Yea, Hong-sa
    Keywords: 宋代;蝗蟲;蝗災;化生說;治蝗政策;Song Dynasty;Locust;Locust Disaster;Heterogenesis;Locust Control Policy
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 05:05:02 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   本文是以宋人對蝗蟲的觀察與認知為中心,來探討宋代社會對於「蝗蟲生態」與「蝗災成因」的瞭解,同時分析當代治蝗措施的運用,與相關知識累積的關係,進而探索當時社會在蝗災衝擊下所衍生的各種問題(如官吏失職、匿災以及貪污等)。
      首先,說明宋代蝗災的分布情形,再探究蝗災對當時社會所造成的影響,以作為後續研究的基礎。其次,說明宋人對蝗蟲生活史的觀察,再歸納當時社會上普遍的蝗蟲來源說,藉以瞭解宋人對蝗蟲生物知識的認知情形。接著,從宋人對蝗災成因的解釋及其治蝗方法,分析這些措施的歷史意義。最後,呈現宋代社會在蝗災衝擊下,所產生的各種現象,如捕蝗法令的由賞入罰、官民捕蝗的苦況、多靈驅蝗的信仰型態等,以便增進對宋代社會真實面貌的瞭解。
      综而論之,透過這四個部份的討論,可以瞭解蝗災為宋代社會帶來了飢荒、民亂等問題,使得朝廷制定嚴苛的捕蝗法,以減少蝗蟲的危害。然而此舉雖然舒緩了蝗災所造成的傷害,增進了人們對蝗蟲生態的瞭解,甚至提升了治蝗的技術,但頻繁的捕蝗活動,不僅官吏疲於奔命,還造成百姓們額外的負擔,並衍生許多執行上的弊病。這些問題的產生,正彰顯出飛蝗史研究的複雜性,需靠跨領域的研究,它不僅是災荒史的研究,同時也是科學史、社會史、經濟史乃至於環境史等領域研究的課題。
    The thesis aims to explore the Song dynastic society’s awareness towards “locust ecology” and “causes leading to locust disasters” by focusing on Song people’s observation and awareness of the locusts, and to further explore a host of problems derived as impacted by locust disasters, i.e. imperial officials’ negligence, concealment of disaster scenarios, graft and such by analyzing the correlation between the adaptation of locust controlling measures adopted at the time and the accumulation of relevant knowledge.
    The thesis first begins to describe the state of locust disaster distribution in Song dynasty before moving to explore the impact that locust disasters have to the society at the time, which would provide a premise for subsequent study. The thesis then moves to describe Song people’s observation of the locust’s life span before summing up the general assumptions on the origin of locusts in the society at the time, with which to discern the state Song people’s awareness of the biology of locusts. The thesis then moves to analyze the historical significance of remedial measures that Song people have adopted by explaining the causes leading to locust disasters and means for locust controlling. The thesis at least profiles a host of phenomena created in Song society amid the impact of locust disasters, i.e. stepped-up locust controlling laws, hardship of locust capturing by officials and commoners, and the religious mode of terminating locusts through deity worship and so forth in order to gain further understanding of the facets of Song society.
    In an overview through a four-part discussion, it is understood that locust disasters that brought Song society with problems of famine, uprising and such have compelled the imperial court to draft stringent locust capturing laws in order to contain the harm of locusts. Nevertheless, despite the move has more than easing the damage caused by locust disasters, helping the people understand the biology of locusts, and excelling also locust-controlling techniques, yet the frequent locust-capturing activities do exhaust the officials from running around and weigh down the people with extra burden, creating also many implementing frauds. The emergence of such problems highlights the complexity in studying the history of locusts, which calls for cross-domain research, for it is more than a study of disaster history, but a subject that encompasses also the domains of history of science, sociology, economics or event environmental study.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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