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    Title: 北宋東宮官之研究
    Other Titles: A study of Dong-gong-guan in northern Sung dynasty
    Authors: 楊景森;Yang, Ching-sen
    Contributors: 淡江大學歷史學系碩士在職專班
    林煌達
    Keywords: 北宋;東宮官;建儲;皇太子;詹事;庶子;Northern Sung Dynasty;Dong-Gong-Guan;The crown prince;The heir apparent;Chan-shih;Shu-Jzu
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-11 05:04:11 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 兩漢的東宮官制仍未成熟,經魏晉南北朝不斷修改制訂,至唐代,東宮組織已臻完整、龐大,其功能猶如一個小朝廷。唐代皇太子常是指定而不固定,屢立屢廢,政爭不斷的結果影響了後來東宮制度的發展。
    在政治制度上,宋承唐制,中央官制大抵擬唐制而行。關於東宮制度上,尤其東宮官制卻是宋以唐師,以唐東宮亂政為鑑,皇太子的教育重心、設計理念迥異於唐的東宮教育,甚而廢置東宮組織。本文首先自帝王的傳位心態探析北宋皇太子的教育政策與目標,明白了北宋的立儲制度特質後進而析論帝王對皇子的教育理念、皇子教育的設計內容和施行方法。皇子子隨著年齡增長,從幼年的宗學教育、資善堂教育,進而出閤封王,張官設職,由皇帝親選的王府學官教育,進而建儲以至皇太子登大位止,整個期間的皇子教育重點歸結起來,北宋皇子的教育重心不在實際政務訓練,而在以儒家文史經籍和品德教育為首要。其次,從北宋東宮官的任用,官吏來源,探析張官置吏有何政治上的意義。最後,北宋皇太子在東宮養德期間甚短,皇太子的教育重心不在實際政務訓練,只有在建儲之際,設置少數功能性的兼官實際輔弼皇太子,其他時間,多數的東宮官銜在恩蔭和贈官制度的結合下,做為重臣虛銜敘位,其目的除為帝王駕馭、策勵群臣手段外,也是下臣提昇文資,以為方便子孫蔭補入仕途徑。
    希望本文的論述,能對北宋的東宮職官,在政治上的意義有更深一層的認識,並對北宋的制度史有所貢獻。
    The Dong-Gong-Guan (East Palace Officer) System in (Eastern and Western) Han Dynasties had been immature; however, through the amendments and reinstitution in Wei-Jin Northern and Southern Dynasties, the Dong-Gong System in Tang Dynasty was complete and vast with the function as if a miniature of the Court. In Tang Dynasty, the heir apparent used to be specified without a firm foundation, leading to the repeated establishment and cancellation thereof. The constant political struggles have hereby impacted the afterward development of the Dong-Gong System.
    The Court in Sung Dynasty inherited the political system in Tang Dynasty, so the central official system resembled that in Tang Dynasty. However, the Court in Sung Dynasty took the Dong-Gong-Guan System in Tang Dynasty as the mirror and learnt from the political intervention of Dong-Gong on politics and pertinent affairs in Tang Dynasty, so the Court adopted the different educational foci and design ideas for heirs apparent and thus abolished the Dong-Gong System used in Tang Dynasty. This paper inquires the educational policies and objectives for heirs apparent in Northern Sung Dynasty at the perspective of imperial succession attitudes to realize the property of the crown prince system in Northern Sung Dynasty and further to discourse the imperial educational ideas, design contents and enforced manners for heirs apparent. The heir apparent accepted Tsong-shue (classical learning) and Tzu-Shan Tang (good quality) education in the childhood for future political succession. Hence, the imperial educational ideas for the heir apparent from classical education and good-quality education to the succession to political powers were handled by the imperial educational officers. First, the educational foci for heirs apparent in Northern Sung Dynasty stressed the Confucius classical books and character education instead of practical political training. Second, the political significance of setup for future political succession is explored by the service engagement of Dong-Gong-Guan (officers) and the source of courtiers. Finally, heirs apparent in Northern Sung Dynasty had been educated in Dong-Gong for an extreme short term since the educational foci stressed non-political training. That is, only few concurrent functional officers / officials aided materially the heir apparent at the moment of setting up the crown prince. At other times, Dong-Gong posts were granted as the awards from the imperial grace and deemed as the official present system for key courtiers to occupy the posts in the Court of which the objectives include the imperial control over courtiers and encouragement and rewards for officers and officials, and the channel for lower courtiers to advance qualification for spreading a road to official career for offspring.
    This paper expects to present deeper political realization of Dong-Gong-Guan in Northern Sung Dynasty and thus contributes to the institutional history of Northern Sung Dynasty.
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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