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    题名: 2004年台灣首次全國性公民投票的政治分析
    其它题名: 2004年臺灣首次全國性公民投票的政治分析
    A politic analysis on the first nationwide referendum of Taiwan in 2004
    作者: 粘美惠;Nien, Mei-hui
    贡献者: 淡江大學公共行政學系公共政策碩士班
    劉淑惠;Liu, Shu-hui
    关键词: 公民投票;歷史制度論;防衛性公投;扼阻公投;Referendum;historical institutionalism;defending referendum;interdicting referendum
    日期: 2005
    上传时间: 2010-01-11 04:48:38 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 公民投票的發展在我國已經醞釀很長一段期間。從1947年二二八事件發生後,廖文毅等台獨運動者以公投作為不滿威權體制的訴求工具,直到2004年3月20日才在有法源依據下舉辦首次的全國性公民投票,然而,因為與總統大選同日舉行,在雙方選舉策略的考量下,使其具有高度政治操作的特色。有謂首次公投被否決,是因總統大選雙方陣營政治動員的結果,然而吾人質疑這樣的觀察是否忽略歷史縱深面因果關係的探討。因此,本文的研究問題是,臺灣公民投票的發展出現什麼困境?哪些因素又形成公民投票發展的轉戾點?2004年首次全國性公民投票過程受哪些制度系絡影響?在政治操作的表象下,是否隱含深一層的影響因素?
    基於歷史發展與制度影響的關聯性,本文選擇歷史制度論作為研究途徑。第一章內容說明研究動機、目的及研究旨趣;並就公民投票的文獻作回顧與檢討;再就研究途徑-歷史制度論的內容作描述,以建立清晰的研究架構;其次是研究方法與章節安排的說明。第二章主要探討威權體制時期公民投票未能形成的原因,焦點置於黨國集權的運作、高壓統治的策略與一個中國的意識,與公民投票發展的關係。第三章研究焦點在於說明促動公民投票進入立法路徑的結構因素,藉由對權力結構的轉變、環境危機以及行為者選擇與策略的探討,說明創造與引導公民投票發展的關鍵因素。第四章主要探討首次全國性公民投票的發動與制度系絡間的關係,說明其發生的樣態,並檢視影響其結果與發展的動態因素。第五章結論說明研究發現、研究限制,並提出後續研究建議。
    研究發現,實務面:(一)黨國掌握絕對國家職能限制公民投票的發展;(二)國家權力場域發生變動,成為促動公民投票發展的轉戾點;(三)防衛性公投是歷史發展的偶然產物,也是符合現狀最大化利益的選擇;(四)首次公投結果受多元因素與潛在一個中國原則的影響;(五)國家角色、選舉因素是決定公民投票發展的關鍵。在理論上發現:(一)公民投票具有重塑人民對某項議題偏好的功能;(二)歷史制度論忽略行為者不作為的操作策略,也可能限制制度的發展。
    The evolution of referendum development in Taiwan has a long history: It was germinated from 228 Incidence of 1947 when Taiwan independence advocates like Liao Wen-Yi et al. asked for referendum to express their opposition to the authority system at that time. However, it was not until March 20, 2004 did referendum come to reality in Taiwan with a legislation foundation. The referendum was given an image of high political manipulation because it was conducted on the same time as Taiwan’s general election with a lot of political consideration from both the ruling party and its opponent. It is even argued that the referendum did not reached a consensus due to intensive political mobilization of both parties during the general election. However, I wonder such a conclusion was drew with no consideration of the historical causality. Therefore, the key questions discussed in this thesis are: “What were the predicaments in the developing process of Taiwan referendum?” “What are the turning points of the development of referendum?” “What was the institutional context that influencing the process of referendum in 2004?” “Was there any factors behind the political operations posing an influence on the process of referendum, and which are they?”
    “Historical institutionalism” is adopted as the research approach due to the correlation between the development and its institutional influence. In chapter one, the motivation, purpose/intention of the study are explained; the reference documents of referendum is reviewed and discussed; then, the research approach, historical institutionalism, is explained to build up a clear research structure, and the research methods and the content arrangement are included, too. In chapter two, the factors that failed referendum in Taiwan’s authority time are discussed with the focus on the causalities between referendum development and the operation of the centralization of the party-state, the strategy of high pressure governance and the ideology of “One China.” Chapter three focuses on the institutional factors to legislate for referendum—It points out the critical factors of the referendum development by illustrating the change of the authority state, the environment crises, and the decision-makers’ choices and strategies. Chapter four probes into the correlation between the operation of the first national referendum and its institutional context and illustrates how it took place. Besides, the dynamic factors affecting the development and result of this referendum are also inspected. In chapter five, the finding of this research is concluded with remarks of the research limitation, and suggestion of the following studies.
    Key findings of this research in the pragmatic aspect are:
    1)Party-state holds the absolute authority of the country and impairs the development of referendum;
    2)The change of authority state is the turning point to realize referendum;
    3)The defensive referendum is the unexpected result of the historical development, and the choice to maximize the benefit of the state as well;
    4)The outcome of the first referendum was influenced by multiple factors and the national sub-consciousness of “One China;”
    5)The state’s role and elective factors are critical to the development of referendum;
    Key findings in the theoretical aspect are:
    1)Referendum can re-build citizens’ preference for a subject;
    2)Historical institutionalism fails to recognize that decision-makers’ non-action strategy may hamper the development of referendum.
    显示于类别:[公共行政學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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